CGI Simple Lithology Categories

format: application/rdf+xml
language: en
creator: CGI IWG Concept Definition Task Group
title: CGI Simple Lithology Categories
identifier: urn:cgi:classifierScheme:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001
historyNote: 2010-02-11 Add narrower relationship links by adding skos:narrower link in Protege, defining skos:narrower as inverse of skos:broader, calculating with Pellet reasoner to add inferred axioms, and using 'file/Export inferred axioms as ontology' in Protege.
historyNote: Additional revisions and updates Dec 2009, Jan 2010 based on review and comment by OneGeology Europe WP3 committee.
historyNote: Start file produced from excel spreadsheet version of SimpleLithology200811, comment period July to September 2009. Revisions in spreadsheet discussed and approved at IWG face to face, Quebec CA, Sept. 2009.
historyNote: Vocabulary maintenence changed to SKOS with Protege v4 as tool of choice, Sept 2009
historyNote: This is trunk version. 2010 0725 fix xml language notation on preferred name, update history notes to reflect that this is trunk version.
prefLabel: CGI Simple Lithology Categories
altLabel: SimpleLithology
definition: This is the trunk verson of the 201001 CGI Simple Lithology vocabulary. Minor comment and bug fixes are made in this version.
hasTopConcept:

-- Acidic igneous material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:acidic_igneous_material
Preferred label (en) Acidic igneous material
Definition () Igneous material with more than 63 percent SiO2.
Source () after LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granitoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:acidic_igneous_rock
Notes:

-- Acidic igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:acidic_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Acidic igneous rock
Definition () Igneous rock with more than 63 percent SiO2.
Source () after LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:acidic_igneous_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dacite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granitoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_rich_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rhyolitoid
Related informal terms (en) siliceous igneous rock
Notes:

-- Alkali olivine basalt --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali-olivine_basalt
Preferred label (en) Alkali olivine basalt
Definition (en) Alkali olivine basalt is silica-undersaturated, characterized by the absence of orthopyroxene, absence of quartz, presence of olivine, and typically contains some feldspathoid mineral, alkali feldspar or phlogopite in the groundmass. Feldspar phenocrysts typically are labradorite to andesine in composition. Augite is rich in titanium compared to augite in tholeiitic basalt. Alkali olivine basalt is relatively rich in sodium.
Source (en) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basalt; Carmichael, I.S. Turner, F.J., Verhoogen, John, 1974, Igneous petrology: New York, McGraw HIll Book Co., p.42-43.
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basalt
Notes:
Comment (en) definition of tholeiite and alkali basalt here are more proscriptive than those found in most reference authorities. This is to actually provide some descriptive criteria to allow assignment of rocks on a hand sample basis to the tholeiite or alkali basalt categories if detailed petrographic or chemical data are available.

-- Alkali feldspar granite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_granite
Preferred label (en) Alkali feldspar granite
Definition (en) Granitic rock that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.1. QAPF field 2.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granitoid
Related informal terms (en) alaskite
Related informal terms (en) peralkaline granite
Notes:

-- Alkali feldspar rhyolite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_rhyolite
Preferred label (en) Alkali feldspar rhyolite
Definition (en) Rhyolitoid in which the ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is less than 0.1. QAPF field 2.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rhyolitoid
Related informal terms (en) alkali feldspar liparite
Related informal terms (en) peralkaline rhyolite
Notes:

-- Alkali feldspar syenite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_syenite
Preferred label (en) Alkali feldspar syenite
Definition (en) Alkali feldspar syenitic rock that contains 0-5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 6.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_syenitic_rock
Notes:

-- Alkali feldspar syenitic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_syenitic_rock
Preferred label (en) Alkali feldspar syenitic rock
Definition (en) Syenitoid with a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio of less than 0.1. QAPF fields 6, 6*, and 6'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenitoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_syenite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_alkali_feldspar_syenite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_alkali_feldspar_syenite
Notes:

-- Alkali feldspar trachyte --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_trachyte
Preferred label (en) Alkali feldspar trachyte
Definition (en) Trachytoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.1, between 0 and 5 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction, and no feldspathoid minerals. QAPF field 6.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_trachytic_rock
Notes:

-- --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_trachytic_rock
Definition () Trachytoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.1. QAPF fields 6, 6', and 6*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachytoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_trachyte
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_alkali_feldspar_trachyte
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_alkali_feldspar_trachyte
Notes:

-- Amphibolite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:amphibolite
Preferred label (en) Amphibolite
Definition () Metamorphic rock mainly consisting of green, brown or black amphibole and plagioclase (including albite), which combined form 75 percent or more of the rock, and both of which are present as major constituents. The amphibole constitutes 50 percent or more of the total mafic constituents and is present in an amount of 30 percent or more; other common minerals include quartz, clinopyroxene, garnet, epidote-group minerals, biotite, titanite and scapolite.
Source () Coutinho et al. 2007, IUGS SCMR chapter 8 (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/SCMR/)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Notes:

-- Andesite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:andesite
Preferred label (en) Andesite
Definition (en) Fine-grained igneous rock with less than 20 percent quartz and less than 10 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction, in which the ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is greater 0.65. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 9 and 10 or chemically in TAS field O2 as andesite. Basalt and andesite, which share the same QAPF fields, are distinguished chemically based on silica content, with basalt defined to contain less than 52 weight percent silica. If chemical data are not available, the color index is used to distinguish the categories, with basalt defined to contain greater than 35 percent mafic minerals by volume or greater than 40 percent mafic minerals by weight. Typically consists of plagioclase (frequently zoned from labradorite to oligoclase), pyroxene, hornblende and/or biotite. Fine grained equivalent of dioritic rock.
Source () after LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fine_grained_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:intermediate_composition_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:boninite
Related informal terms (en) basaltic andesite
Related informal terms (en) leuco-basalt
Related informal terms (en) mela-andesite
Notes:
Comment (en) note the mela-andesite and leuco-basalt categories are not recommended in this system. If chemical analytical data are available to constrain the silica content, the basalt or andesite category should be used.

-- Anorthosite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anorthosite
Preferred label (en) Anorthosite
Definition (en) Anorthositic rock that contains between 0 and 5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anorthositic_rock
Notes:

-- Anorthositic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anorthositic_rock
Preferred label (en) Anorthositic rock
Definition (en) Leucocratic phaneritic crystalline igneous rock consisting essentially of plagioclase, often with small amounts of pyroxene. By definition, colour index M is less than 10, and plagiclase to total feldspar ratio is greater than 0.9. Less than 20 percent quartz and less than 10 percent feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10, 10*, and 10'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002; This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anorthosite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_anorthosite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_anorthosite
Notes:
Comment (en) anorthositic rock term invented to label the combined QAPF fields 10, 10*, and 10', in order to construct hierarchy in this vocabulary.

-- Anthracite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anthracite_coal
Preferred label (de) Anthrazit
Preferred label (en) Anthracite
Alternative label (en) High rank coal
Definition (en) Coal that has vitrinite mean random reflectance greater than 2.0% (determined in conformance with ISO 7404-5). Less than 12-14 percent volatiles (dry, ash free), greater than 91 percent fixed carbon (dry, ash free basis). The highest rank coal; very hard, glossy, black, with semimetallic luster, semi conchoidal fracture.
Source (en) Economic Commission for Europe, Committee on Sustainable Energy- United Nations (ECE-UN), 1998, International Classification of in-Seam Coals: Energy 19, 41 pp; see also Neuendorf et al. 2005; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal#Types_of_coal; Eberhard Lindner; Chemie für Ingenieure; Lindner Verlag Karlsruhe, S. 258
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:coal
Notes:

-- Anthropogenic material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anthropogenic_material
Preferred label (en) Anthropogenic material
Definition (en) Material known to have artificial (human-related) origin; insufficient information to classify in more detail.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:compound_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anthropogenic_unconsolidated_material
Notes:

-- Anthropogenic unconsolidated material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anthropogenic_unconsolidated_material
Preferred label (en) Anthropogenic unconsolidated material
Definition (en) Unconsolidated material known to have artificial (human-related) origin.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anthropogenic_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:unconsolidated_material
Notes:

-- Aphanite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:aphanite
Preferred label (en) Aphanite
Definition () Rock that is too fine grained to categorize in more detail.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rock
Notes:

-- Aplite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:aplite
Preferred label (en) Aplite
Definition () Light coloured crystalline rock, characterized by a fine grained allotriomorphic-granular (aplitic, saccharoidal or xenomorphic) texture; typically granitic composition, consisting of quartz, alkali feldspar and sodic plagioclase.
Source () Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Notes:

-- Arenite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:arenite
Preferred label (de) Arenit
Preferred label (en) Arenite
Definition (en) Clastic sandstone that contains less than 10 percent matrix. Matrix is mud-size silicate minerals (clay, feldspar, quartz, rock fragments, and alteration products) of detrital or diagenetic nature.
Source (en) Pettijohn, Potter, Siever, 1972, Sand and Sandstone: New York, Springer Verlag, 681 p.
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sandstone
Notes:

-- Ash and lapilli --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ash_and_lapilli
Preferred label (en) Ash and lapilli
Definition (en) Tephra in which less than 25 percent of fragments are greater than 64 mm in longest dimension
Source () Schmid 1981; LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephra
Notes:

-- Ash breccia, bomb, or block tephra --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ash_breccia_bomb_or_block_tephra
Preferred label (en) Ash breccia, bomb, or block tephra
Definition (en) Tephra in which more than 25 percent of particles are greater than 64 mm in largest dimension. Includes ash breccia, bomb tephra and block tephra of Gillespie and Styles (1999)
Source () Schmid 1981; LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephra
Notes:

-- Ash tuff, lapillistone, and lapilli tuff --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ash_tuff_lapillistone_and_lapilli_tuff
Preferred label (en) Ash tuff, lapillistone, and lapilli tuff
Definition (en) Pyroclastic rock in which less than 25 percent of rock by volume are more than 64 mm in longest diameter. Includes tuff, lapilli tuff, and lapillistone.
Source () Schmid 1981; LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroclastic_rock
Notes:

-- Basalt --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basalt
Preferred label (en) Basalt
Definition (en) Fine-grained or porphyritic igneous rock with less than 20 percent quartz, and less than 10 percent feldspathoid minerals, in which the ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is greater 0.65. Typically composed of calcic plagioclase and clinopyroxene; phenocrysts typically include one or more of calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and olivine. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 9 and 10 or chemically in TAS field B as basalt. Basalt and andesite are distinguished chemically based on silica content, with basalt defined to contain less than 52 weight percent silica. If chemical data are not available, the color index is used to distinguish the categories, with basalt defined to contain greater than 35 percent mafic minerals by volume or greater than 40 percent mafic minerals by weight.
Source () after LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basic_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fine_grained_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali-olivine_basalt
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tholeiitic_basalt
Related informal terms (en) leuco-basalt
Related informal terms (en) mela-andesite
Related informal terms (en) picrite
Related informal terms (en) picrobasalt
Notes:

-- Basanite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basanite
Preferred label (en) Basanite
Definition (en) Tephritoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.9, and contains more than 10 percent normative (CIPW) olivine.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephritoid
Notes:

-- Basanitic foidite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basanitic_foidite
Preferred label (en) Basanitic foidite
Definition (en) Foiditoid that contains less than 90 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction, and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio that is greater than 0.5, with greater than 10 percent normative olivine.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foiditoid
Notes:

-- Basic igneous material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basic_igneous_material
Preferred label (en) Basic igneous material
Definition (en) Igneous material with between 45 and 52 percent SiO2.
Source () after LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basic_igneous_rock
Notes:

-- Basic igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basic_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Basic igneous rock
Definition (en) Igneous rock with between 45 and 52 percent SiO2.
Source () after LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basic_igneous_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basalt
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbroic_rock
Notes:

-- Bauxite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:bauxite
Preferred label (en) Bauxite
Definition () Highly aluminous material containing abundant aluminium hydroxides (gibbsite, less commonly boehmite, diaspore) and aluminium-substituted iron oxides or hydroxides and generally minor or negligible kaolin minerals; may contain up to 20 percent quartz. Commonly has a pisolitic or nodular texture, and may be cemented.
Source () Eggleton 2001
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:material_formed_in_surficial_environment
Notes:

-- Biogenic sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:biogenic_sediment
Preferred label (en) Biogenic sediment
Definition (en) Sediment composed of greater than 50 percent material of biogenic origin. Because the biogenic material may be skeletal remains that are not organic, all biogenic sediment is not necessarily organic-rich.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ooze
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sediment
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sediment
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sediment
Notes:
Comment (en) Corresponding biogenic sedimentary material and biogenic sedimentary rock categories are not included based on the interpretation that biogenic sedimentary rock will be in a different category, e.g. carbonate sedimentary rock or organic rich sedimentary rock.

-- Biogenic silica sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:biogenic_silica_sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Biogenic silica sedimentary rock
Definition () Sedimentary rock that consists of at least 50 percent silicate mineral material, deposited directly by biological processes at the depositional surface, or in particles formed by biological processes within the basin of deposition.
Source () based on NADM SLTT sedimentary; Hallsworth & Knox 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sedimentary_rock
Related informal terms (en) radiolarite
Related informal terms (en) spicularite
Related informal terms (en) spiculite
Notes:

-- Bituminous coal --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:bituminous_coal
Preferred label (en) Bituminous coal
Alternative label (en) Medium rank coal
Definition (en) Coal that has vitrinite mean random reflectance greater than 0.6% and less than 2.0% (determined in conformance with ISO 7404-5), or has a gross calorific value greater than 24 MJ/kg (determined in conformance with ISO 1928). Hard, black, organic rich sedimentary rock; contains less than 91 percent fixed carbon on a dry, mineral-matter-free basis, and greater than 13-14 percent volatiles (dry, ash free). Formed from the compaction or induration of variously altered plant remains similar to those of peaty deposits.
Source (en) Economic Commission for Europe, Committee on Sustainable Energy- United Nations (ECE-UN), 1998, International Classification of in-Seam Coals: Energy 19, 41 pp; see also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal#Types_of_coal; Eberhard Lindner; Chemie für Ingenieure; Lindner Verlag Karlsruhe, S. 258
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:coal
Related informal terms (de) esskohle
Related informal terms (de) fettkohle
Related informal terms (de) flammkohle
Related informal terms (de) gasflammkohle
Related informal terms (de) gaskohle
Related informal terms (de) glanzkohle
Notes:

-- Boninite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:boninite
Preferred label (en) Boninite
Definition (en) andesitic rock that contains more than 8 percent MgO. Typically consists of phenocrysts of protoenstatite, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and olivine in a glassy base full of crystallites, and exhibits textures characterisitc of rapid crystal growth.
Source (en) LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:andesite
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:high_magnesium_fine_grained_igneous_rocks
Notes:

-- --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:boulder_gravel_size_sediment
Preferred label () Boulder gravel size sediment { @en}
Definition () Sediment containing greater than 30 percent boulder-size particles (greater than 256 mm in diameter)
Source () Wentworth size scale
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gravel_size_sediment
Notes:

-- Boundstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:boundstone
Preferred label (en) Boundstone
Definition () Sedimentary carbonate rock with preserved biogenic texture, whose original components were bound and encrusted together during deposition by the action of plants and animals during deposition, and remained substantially in the position of growth.
Source () Hallsworth and Knox 1999; SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Breccia --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:breccia
Preferred label (en) Breccia
Definition (en) Coarse-grained material composed of angular broken rock fragments; the fragments typically have sharp edges and unworn corners. The fragments may be held together by a mineral cement or in a fine-grained matrix, and consolidated or nonconsolidated. Clasts may be of any composition or origin. In sedimentary environments, breccia is used for material that consists entirely of angular fragments, mostly derived from a single source rock body, as in a rock avalanche deposit, and matrix is interpreted to be the product of comminution of clasts during transport. Diamictite or diamicton is used when the material reflects mixing of rock from a variety of sources, some sub angular or subrounded clasts may be present, and matrix is pre-existing fine grained material that is not a direct product of the brecciation/deposition process.
Source () Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:compound_material
Notes:

-- Breccia-gouge series --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:breccia_gouge_series
Preferred label (en) Breccia-gouge series
Definition () Fault material with features such as void spaces (filled or unfilled), or unconsolidated matrix material between fragments, indicating loss of cohesion during deformation. Includes fault-related breccia and gouge.
Source () SLTTm 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fault_related_material
Notes:

-- Calcareous carbonate sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sediment
Preferred label (en) Calcareous carbonate sediment
Definition () Carbonate sediment with a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1. Includes lime-sediments.
Source () after Hallsworth & Knox 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_calcareous_carbonate_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_calcareous_carbonate_sediment
Notes:

-- Calcareous carbonate sedimentary material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sedimentary_material
Preferred label (en) Calcareous carbonate sedimentary material
Definition () Carbonate sedimentary material of unspecified consolidation state with a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1. Includes lime-sediments, limestone and dolomitic limestone.
Source () after Hallsworth & Knox 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Calcareous carbonate sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Calcareous carbonate sedimentary rock
Definition () Carbonate sedimentary rock with a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1. Includes limestone and dolomitic limestone.
Source () SLTTs 2004; Hallsworth & Knox 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_limestone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:limestone
Notes:

-- Carbonate mud --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_mud
Preferred label (en) Carbonate mud
Alternative label (en) marl
Definition (en) Carbonate sediment composed of less than 25 percent clasts that have a maximum diameter more than 2 mm, and the ratio of sand size to mud size clasts is less than one.
Source () follow pattern used for clastic sand and mud categories, based on SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud_size_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_ooze
Notes:

-- Carbonate mudstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_mudstone
Preferred label (en) Carbonate mudstone
Alternative label (en) marlstone
Definition (en) Mudstone that consists of greater than 50 percent carbonate minerals of any origin in the mud size fraction.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_mudstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_mudstone
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Related informal terms (en) marlstone, calcareous loess
Notes:
Comment (en) Not a subcategory of carbonate sedimentary rock because definition does not specify 'carbonate minerals of intrabasinal origin', but is agnostic on origin of carbonate.
Comment (en) Schnurrenberger et al. 2003 point out that it is very difficult (at least in lacustrine rocks) to distinguish chemically precipitated or diagenetic carbonate from primary biogenic carbonate. This distinction between biogenic, detrital, and pedogenic or authigenic carbonate material is thus not a good one to use in a general purpose classification system. Schnurrenberger, D., Russell, J. and Kelts, K., 2003, Classification of lacustrine sediments based on sedimentary components: Journal of Paleolimnology, v.29, p141-154.

-- Carbonate ooze --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_ooze
Preferred label (en) Carbonate ooze
Definition (en) ooze that consists of more than 50 percent carbonate skeletal remains
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_mud
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ooze
Notes:

-- Carbonate rich mud --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_rich_mud
Preferred label (en) Carbonate rich mud
Alternative label (en) Carbonate rich loess
Alternative label (en) marl
Definition (en) Mud size sediment that contains between 10 and 50 percent carbonate minerals in any size fraction. Carbonate origin is not specified.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud_size_sediment
Notes:

-- Carbonate rich mudstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_rich_mudstone
Preferred label (en) Carbonate rich mudstone
Alternative label (en) marlstone
Definition (en) Mudstone that contains between 10 and 50 percent carbonate minerals in the mud size fraction. Carbonate origin is not specified.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_mudstone
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_rock
Related informal terms (en) calcareous loess
Notes:
Comment (en) 'carbonate-rich mudstone' definition limits carbonate to mud-size fraction to avoid overlap with 'impure carbonate sedimentary rock'. If carbonate minerals are in sand or gravel size fractions, use 'impure carbonate sedimentary rock' The operational test typically used to identify this category is if the rock fizzes when hydrochloric acid is applied. The '10 percent carbonate' criteria is a fuzzy boundary. Rocks typcially called marlstone are subdivided into a carbonate rich variety, and a

-- Carbonate sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sediment
Preferred label (en) Carbonate sediment
Definition () Sediment in which at least 50 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals calcite, aragonite and dolomite, in particles of intrabasinal origin.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_mud
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_carbonate_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_sediment
Notes:

-- Carbonate sedimentary material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_material
Preferred label (en) Carbonate sedimentary material
Definition () Sedimentary material in which at least 50 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals calcite, aragonite and dolomite, in particles of intrabasinal origin.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_or_magnesian_sedimentary_material
Notes:
Comment (en) Should carbonate sedimentary material be considered a kind of chemical sedimentary material? Is biogenic precipitation a chemical sedimentary process?

-- Carbonate sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Carbonate sedimentary rock
Definition (en) Sedimentary rock in which at least 50 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals calcite, aragonite, magnesite or dolomite.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:boundstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_mudstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_wackestone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:crystalline_carbonate
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_or_magnesian_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:framestone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:grainstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:packstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Notes:
Comment (en) Carbonate rock subcatgories are defined on two orthogonal dimensions--mineralogy (calcitic vs. dolomitic vs non-carbonate impurities), and texture. The texture categories used here are those of Dunham (1962), and involve grain size (matrix vs. grains/allochems), fabric (matrix vs. grain supported), and genesis (bound, frame, or fragmental). The textural approach used for carbonate rocks is conceptually incompatible with that used for clastic sedimentary rocks, which is solely grain size or mineralogy based. This leads to problems in the vocabulary for rocks of mixed siliclastic/carbonate mineralogy (grainstone vs. sandstone, carbonate mudstone vs. carbonate rich mudstone, how to accomodate marlstone...).
Comment (en) Particularly for fine-grained sedimentary rocks, distinction of 'intrabasinal' versus 'clastic' genesis can be very interpretive. In practice the use of clastic mudstone terminology as opposed to carbonate mudstone terminology may be dermined by a priori knowledge about the rock being categorized. If it is associated with other clastic rocks, the clastic categories will be favored, if with cabonate rocks, the carbonate categories will be favored.

-- Carbonate wackestone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_wackestone
Preferred label (en) Carbonate wackestone
Definition (en) Carbonate sedimentary rock with discernible mud supported depositional texture and containing greater than 10 percent allochems, and constituent particles are of intrabasinal origin. If particles are not intrabasinal, categorization as a mudstone or wackestone should be considered.
Source () Dunham 1962
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_mudstone
Notes:

-- Carbonatite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonatite
Preferred label (en) Carbonatite
Definition () Igneous rock composed of more than 50 percent modal carbonate minerals.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:exotic_composition_igneous_rock
Notes:

-- Cataclasite series --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:cataclasite_series
Preferred label (en) Cataclasite series
Definition (en) Fault-related rock that maintained primary cohesion during deformation, with matrix comprising greater than 10 percent of rock mass; matrix is fine-grained material formed through grain size reduction by fracture as opposed to crystal plastic process that operate in mylonitic rock. Includes cataclasite, protocataclasite and ultracataclasite.
Source () Sibson, 1977; Scholz, 1990; Snoke and Tullis, 1998; Barker, 1998 Appendix II; NADM SLTTm, 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fault_related_material
Notes:

-- Chalk --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:chalk
Preferred label (en) Chalk
Definition (en) A generally soft, white, very fine-grained, extremely pure, porous limestone. It forms under marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of skeletal elements from minute planktonic green algae (cocoliths), associated with varying proportions of larger microscopic fragments of bivalves, foraminifera and ostracods. It is common to find flint and chert nodules embedded in chalk.
Source () http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalk; C.S. Harris, 2009, unpublished web page, http://www.geologyshop.co.uk/chalk.htm
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:limestone
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_mudstone
Notes:

-- Chemical sedimentary material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:chemical_sedimentary_material
Preferred label (en) Chemical sedimentary material
Definition (en) Sedimentary material that consists of at least 50 percent material produced by inorganic chemical processes within the basin of deposition. Includes inorganic siliceous, carbonate, evaporite, iron-rich, and phosphatic sediment classes.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:evaporite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:iron_rich_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:travertine
Notes:

-- Chlorite actinolite epidote metamorphic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:chlorite_actinolite_epidote_metamorphic_rock
Preferred label (en) Chlorite actinolite epidote metamorphic rock
Definition (en) Metamorphic rock characterized by 50 percent or more of combined chlorite, actinolite and epidote. Category for rocks generally named greenschist or greenstone.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Related informal terms (en) greenschist
Related informal terms (en) greenstone
Notes:
Comment (en) Rock classified as Greenschist is difficult to categorize in the CGI SimpleLithology scheme. This stems in part from the variation in usage and the general fuzzy definition of the term. The definition of greenschist is generally something along the lines of ‘metamorphosed rock with a greenish colour, characterized by the presence of actinolite, chlorite and epidote, and containing a planar or linear fabric. The presence or absence of schistose fabric in rocks called ‘greenschist’ is problematic. The fabric present in many rocks called greenschist is too weak or variably developed to meet the definition of ‘schist’ per CGI SimpleLithology. Generally if the rock has achieved metamorphic grade such that the term ‘gneiss’ is applicable, it would not be called greenschist. Thus, ‘greenschist’ would correspond most closely to a chlorite + actinolite rich ‘Foliated metamorphic rock’, but if it actually meets the definition of ‘Schist’ it would be a chlorite + actinolite ‘Schist’.

-- Conglomerate --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_conglomerate
Preferred label (en) Conglomerate
Alternative label (en) Clastic conglomerate
Definition (en) Clastic sedimentary rock composed of at least 30 percent rounded to subangular fragments larger than 2 mm in diameter; typically contains finer grained material in interstices between larger fragments. If more than 15 percent of the fine grained matrix is of indeterminant clastic or diagenetic origin and the fabric is matrix supported, may also be categorized as wackestone. If rock has unsorted or poorly sorted texture with a wide range of particle sizes, may also be categorized as diamictite.
Source () Neuendorf et al. 2005; SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_conglomerate
Notes:

-- Mudstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_mudstone
Preferred label (en) Mudstone
Alternative label (en) Clastic mudstone
Definition () Clastic sedimentary rock consisting of less than 30 percent gravel-size (2 mm) particles and with a mud to sand ratio greater than 1.
Source () Pettijohn et al. 1987 referenced in Hallsworth & Knox 1999; extrapolated from Folk, 1954, Figure 1a
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_mudstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:claystone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:shale
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:siltstone
Related informal terms (en) argillite
Notes:
Comment (en) Distinction of intrabasinal, diagenetic, or clastic genesis for very fine-grained carbonate minerals is interpretive in many cases. If there is uncertainty on the mudstone category based on intrabasinal vs epiclastic distinction required for clastic sedimentary rock-carbonate sedimentary rock categorization in this system, it is recommended to use the generic_mudstone category. Schnurrenberger, D., Russell, J. and Kelts, K., 2003, Classification of lacustrine sediments based on sedimentary components: Journal of Paleolimnology, v.29, p141-154.

-- Sandstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sandstone
Preferred label (en) Sandstone
Alternative label (en) Clastic sandstone
Definition (en) Clastic sedimentary rock in which less than 30 percent of particles are greater than 2 mm in diameter (gravel) and the sand to mud ratio is at least 1.
Source () SLTTs 2004; Neuendorf et al. 2005; particle size from Wentworth grade scale
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_sandstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:arenite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:wacke
Notes:

-- Clastic sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sediment
Preferred label (en) Clastic sediment
Definition () Sediment in which at least 50 percent of the constituent particles were derived from erosion, weathering, or mass-wasting of pre-existing earth materials, and transported to the place of deposition by mechanical agents such as water, wind, ice and gravity.
Source () SLTTs 2004; Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:diamicton
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gravel
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sand
Notes:
Comment (en) Choice of 'clastic' is purposful. Other suggested labels for this category include siliciclastic and terrigineous clastic. Siliciclastic is considered too limiting because the category includes rocks that consists clasts of carbonate minerals, e.g. epiclastic detritus eroded from carbonate rock. Terrigineous clastic was considered and rejected first because it is considered redundant, anything that is terrigineous is clastic. Second, it is questionable if clastic sediment derived by submarine processes (fragementation by gravity sliding, faulting, or volcanic activity, with transport by sediment gravity flow or submarine currents) is terrigineous, but it is clastic and is meant to be included in this category.

-- Clastic sedimentary material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_material
Preferred label (en) Clastic sedimentary material
Definition () Sedimentary material of unspecified consolidation state in which at least 50 percent of the constituent particles were derived from erosion, weathering, or mass-wasting of pre-existing earth materials, and transported to the place of deposition by mechanical agents such as water, wind, ice and gravity.
Source () SLTTs 2004; Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Clastic sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Clastic sedimentary rock
Definition () Sedimentary rock in which at least 50 percent of the constituent particles were derived from erosion, weathering, or mass-wasting of pre-existing earth materials, and transported to the place of deposition by mechanical agents such as water, wind, ice and gravity.
Source () SLTTs 2004; Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_conglomerate
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_mudstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sandstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:diamictite
Notes:
Comment (en) Particularly for fine-grained sedimentary rocks, distinction of 'intrabasinal' versus 'clastic' genesis can be very interpretive. In practice the use of clastic mudstone terminology as opposed to carbonate mudstone terminology may be dermined by a priori knowledge about the rock being categorized. If it is associated with other clastic rocks, the clastic categories will be favored, if with cabonate rocks, the carbonate categories will be favored.
Comment (en) The conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, and wackestone categories are not defined as kinds of clastic sedimentary rocks because rocks meeting their purely grainsize based definitions might also be iron-rich, phosphatic, or carbonate. This is based on GeoSciML allowance to assign rocks to more than one lithology category. For example to categorize a rock as a clastic conglomerate requires assignment ot the 'clastic sedimentary rock' category and to the 'conglomerate' category.

-- Clay --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clay
Preferred label (en) Clay
Definition (en) Mud that consists of greater than 50 percent particles with grain size less than 0.004 mm
Source () based on SLTTs 2004; Neuendorf et al. 2005; particle size from Wentworth grade scale
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud
Notes:

-- Claystone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:claystone
Preferred label (en) Claystone
Definition (en) Mudstone that contains no detectable silt, inferred to consist virtually entirely of clay-size particles.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_mudstone
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_mudstone
Notes:

-- Coal --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:coal
Preferred label (de) Kohle
Preferred label (en) Coal
Definition (en) A consolidated organic sedimentary material having less than 75% moisture. This category includes low, medium, and high rank coals according to International Classification of In-Seam Coal (United Nations, 1998), thus including lignite. Sapropelic coal is not distinguished in this category from humic coals. Formed from the compaction or induration of variously altered plant remains similar to those of peaty deposits.
Source (en) Economic Commission for Europe, Committee on Sustainable Energy- United Nations (ECE-UN), 1998, International Classification of in-Seam Coals: Energy 19, 41 pp.
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anthracite_coal
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:bituminous_coal
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:lignite
Notes:

-- --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:cobble_gravel_size_sediment
Preferred label () Cobble gravel size sediment
Definition () Sediment containing greater than 30 percent cobble-size particles (64-256 mm in diameter)
Source () Wentworth size scale
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gravel_size_sediment
Notes:

-- Composite genesis material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_material
Preferred label (en) Composite genesis material
Definition () Material of unspecified consolidation state formed by geological modification of pre-existing materials outside the realm of igneous and sedimentary processes. Includes rocks formed by impact metamorphism, standard dynamothermal metamorphism, brittle deformation, weathering, metasomatism and hydrothermal alteration (diagenesis is a sedimentary process in this context).
Source () SLTTm 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:compound_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fault_related_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impact_generated_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:material_formed_in_surficial_environment
Notes:

-- Composite genesis rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_rock
Preferred label (en) Composite genesis rock
Definition () Rock formed by geological modification of pre-existing rocks outside the realm of igneous and sedimentary processes. Includes rocks formed by impact metamorphism, standard dynamothermal metamorphism, brittle deformation, weathering, metasomatism and hydrothermal alteration (diagenesis is a sedimentary process in this context).
Source () SLTTm 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:cataclasite_series
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:duricrust
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metasomatic_rock
Notes:

-- Compound material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:compound_material
Preferred label (en) Compound material
Definition () An Earth Material composed of an aggregation of particles of Earth Material, possibly including other Compound Materials. This is 'top' of lithology category hierarchy, and should be used to indicate 'any rock or unconsolidated material'.
Source () NADM C1 2004
Relationships:
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anthropogenic_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:breccia
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:unconsolidated_material
Notes:

-- Crystalline carbonate --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:crystalline_carbonate
Preferred label (en) Crystalline carbonate
Definition () Carbonate rock of indeterminate mineralogy in which diagenetic processes have obliterated any original depositional texture.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Dacite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dacite
Preferred label (en) Dacite
Definition (en) Fine grained or porphyritic crystalline rock that contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, between 20 and 60 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction, and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.65. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 4 and 5 or chemically in TAS Field O3. Typcially composed of quartz and sodic plagioclase with minor amounts of biotite and/or hornblende and/or pyroxene; fine-grained equivalent of granodiorite and tonalite.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:acidic_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fine_grained_igneous_rock
Related informal terms (en) rhyodacite
Notes:

-- Diamictite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:diamictite
Preferred label (en) Diamictite
Definition (en) Unsorted or poorly sorted, clastic sedimentary rock with a wide range of particle sizes including a muddy matrix. Biogenic materials that have such texture are excluded. Distinguished from conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone based on polymodality and lack of structures related to transport and deposition of sediment by moving air or water. If more than 10 percent of the fine grained matrix is of indeterminant clastic or diagenetic origin and the fabric is matrix supported, may also be categorized as wacke.
Source () Fairbridge and Bourgeois 1978
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_rock
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_conglomerate
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:wacke
Related informal terms (en) pebbly mudstone
Notes:

-- Diamicton --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:diamicton
Preferred label (en) Diamicton
Definition (en) Unsorted or poorly sorted, clastic sediment with a wide range of particle sizes, including a muddy matrix. Biogenic materials that have such texture are excluded. Distinguished from conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone based on polymodality and lack of structures related to transport and deposition of sediment by moving air or water. Assignment to an other size class can be used in conjunction to indicate the dominant grain size.
Source () Fairbridge and Bourgeois 1978
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sediment
Notes:
Comment (en) definition amplified to help distinguish diamicton, conglomerate and wackestone in this version

-- Diorite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:diorite
Preferred label (en) Diorite
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline rock consisting of intermediate plagioclase, commonly with hornblende and often with biotite or augite; colour index M less than 90, sodic plagioclase (An0-An50), no feldspathoid, and between 0 and 5 percent quartz. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 10 as diorite.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dioritic_rock
Notes:

-- Dioritic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dioritic_rock
Preferred label (en) Dioritic rock
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline rock with M less than 90, consisting of intermediate plagioclase, commonly with hornblende and often with biotite or augite. A dioritoid with a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio (in the QAPF fraction) greater than 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 10, 10' and 10*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dioritoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:diorite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_diorite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_diorite
Notes:

-- Dioritoid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dioritoid
Preferred label (en) Dioritoid
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline igneous rock with M less than 90, consisting of intermediate plagioclase, commonly with hornblende and often with biotite or augite. Plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is greater that 0.65, and anorthite content of plagioclase is less than 50 percent. Less than 10 percent feldspathoid mineral and less than 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 9 and 10 (and their subdivisions).
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:intermediate_composition_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dioritic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzodioritic_rock
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:doleritic_rock
Notes:

-- Doleritic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:doleritic_rock
Preferred label (en) Doleritic rock
Definition () Dark colored gabbroic (basaltic) or dioritic (andesitic) rock intermediate in grain size between basalt and gabbro and composed of plagioclase, pyroxene and opaque minerals; often with ophitic texture. Typically occurs as hypabyssal intrusions. Includes dolerite, microdiorite, diabase and microgabbro.
Source () Neuendorf et al 2005; LeMaitre et al. 2002; Gillespie and Styles 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:andesite
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basic_igneous_material
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dioritic_rock
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbroid
Related informal terms (en) diabase
Related informal terms (en) microdiorite
Related informal terms (en) microgabbro
Related informal terms (en) trap
Notes:

-- Dolomitic or magnesian sedimentary material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_or_magnesian_sedimentary_material
Preferred label (en) Dolomitic or magnesian sedimentary material
Definition () Carbonate sedimentary material of unspecified consolidation degree with a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1. Includes dolomite sediment, dolostone, lime dolostone and magnesite-stone.
Source () after SLTTs 2004, Hallsworth and Knox 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_or_magnesian_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_sediment
Notes:

-- Dolomitic or magnesian sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_or_magnesian_sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Dolomitic or magnesian sedimentary rock
Definition () Carbonate sedimentary rock with a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1. Includes dolostone, lime dolostone and magnesite-stone.
Source () after SLTTs 2004, Hallsworth and Knox 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_or_magnesian_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolostone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_dolostone
Notes:

-- Dolomitic sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_sediment
Preferred label (en) Dolomitic sediment
Definition () Carbonate sediment with a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1.
Source () after SLTTs 2004, Hallsworth and Knox 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_or_magnesian_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_dolomitic_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_dolomitic_sediment
Notes:

-- Dolomite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolostone
Preferred label (en) Dolomite
Alternative label (en) Dolostone
Alternative label (en) Pure dolomitic or magnesian carbonate sedimentary rock
Definition (en) Pure carbonate sedimentary rock with a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_or_magnesian_sedimentary_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Duricrust --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:duricrust
Preferred label (en) Duricrust
Definition () Rock forming a hard crust or layer at or near the Earth's surface at the time of formation, e.g. in the upper horizons of a soil, characterized by structures indicative of pedogenic origin.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:material_formed_in_surficial_environment
Notes:

-- Eclogite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:eclogite
Preferred label (en) Eclogite
Definition () Metamorphic rock composed of 75 percent or more (by volume) omphacite and garnet, both of which are present as major constituents, the amount of neither of them being higher than 75 percent (by volume); the presence of plagioclase precludes classification as an eclogite.
Source () IUGS SCMR 2007 (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/SCMR/)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Notes:

-- Evaporite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:evaporite
Preferred label (en) Evaporite
Definition () Nonclastic sedimentary rock composed of at least 50 percent non-carbonate salts, including chloride, sulfate or borate minerals; formed through precipitation of mineral salts from a saline solution (non-carbonate salt rock).
Source () Jackson 1997; SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:chemical_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:exotic_evaporite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rock_gypsum_or_anhydrite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rock_salt
Notes:

-- Exotic alkaline rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:exotic_alkaline_rock
Preferred label (en) Exotic alkaline rock
Definition (en) Kimberlite, lamproite, or lamprophyre. Generally are potassic, mafic or ultramafic rocks. Olivine (commonly serpentinized in kimberlite), and phlogopite are significant constituents.
Source () based on LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:exotic_composition_igneous_rock
Related informal terms (en) cancalite
Related informal terms (en) cedricite
Related informal terms (en) fitzroyite
Related informal terms (en) fortunite
Related informal terms (en) jumillite
Related informal terms (en) kimberlite
Related informal terms (en) lamproite
Related informal terms (en) lamprophyre
Related informal terms (en) madupite
Related informal terms (en) mamilite
Related informal terms (en) orendite
Related informal terms (en) verite
Related informal terms (en) wolgidite
Related informal terms (en) wyomingite
Notes:

-- Exotic composition igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:exotic_composition_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Exotic composition igneous rock
Definition (en) Rock with 'exotic' mineralogical, textural or field setting characteristics; typically dark colored, with abundant phenocrysts. Criteria include: presence of greater than 10 percent melilite or leucite, or presence of kalsilite, or greater than 50 percent carbonate minerals. Includes Carbonatite, Melilitic rock, Kalsilitic rocks, Kimberlite, Lamproite, Leucitic rock and Lamprophyres.
Source () Gillespie and Styles 1999; LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonatite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:exotic_alkaline_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:kalsilitic_and_melilitic_rock
Notes:

-- Exotic evaporite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:exotic_evaporite
Preferred label (en) Exotic evaporite
Definition (en) Evaporite that is not 50 percent halite or 50 percent gypsum or anhydrite.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:evaporite
Notes:
Comment (en) Category represents evaporite material that is not mostly gypsum/anhydrite or halite. These are generally not very common, thus the 'exotic' name

-- Fault-related material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fault_related_material
Preferred label (en) Fault-related material
Definition () Material formed as a result brittle faulting, composed of greater than 10 percent matrix; matrix is fine-grained material caused by tectonic grainsize reduction. Includes cohesive (cataclasite series) and non-cohesive (breccia-gouge series) material.
Source () This vocabulary; SLTTm 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:breccia_gouge_series
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:cataclasite_series
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mylonitic_rock
Notes:

-- Fine grained igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fine_grained_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Fine grained igneous rock
Alternative label (en) Volcanic rock
Definition (en) Igneous rock in which the framework of the rock consists of crystals that are too small to determine mineralogy with the unaided eye; framework may include up to 50 percent glass. A significant percentage of the rock by volume may be phenocrysts. Includes rocks that are generally called volcanic rocks.
Source () Gillespie and Styles 1999; LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:andesite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basalt
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dacite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foiditoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:high_magnesium_fine_grained_igneous_rocks
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolitoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rhyolitoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephritoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachytoid
Notes:
Comment (en) Need to make decision as to whether devitrified glass should be considered glass or microcrystalline framework for purposes of categorization

-- Foid bearing alkali feldspar syenite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_alkali_feldspar_syenite
Preferred label (en) Foid bearing alkali feldspar syenite
Definition (en) Alkali feldspar syenitic rock that contains 0-10 percent feldspathoid mineral and no quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 6'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_syenitic_rock
Notes:

-- Foid bearing alkali feldspar trachyte --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_alkali_feldspar_trachyte
Preferred label (en) Foid bearing alkali feldspar trachyte
Definition (en) Alkali feldspar trachytic rock that contains no quartz and between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 6'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_trachytic_rock
Notes:

-- Foid bearing anorthosite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_anorthosite
Preferred label (en) Foid bearing anorthosite
Definition (en) Anorthositic rock that contains between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid mineral and no quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anorthositic_rock
Notes:

-- Foid bearing diorite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_diorite
Preferred label (en) Foid bearing diorite
Definition (en) Dioritic rock that contains between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dioritic_rock
Notes:

-- Foid bearing gabbro --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_gabbro
Preferred label (en) Foid bearing gabbro
Definition (en) Gabbroic rock that contains 0-10 percent feldspathoid minerals and no quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbroic_rock
Notes:

-- Foid bearing latite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_latite
Preferred label (en) Foid bearing latite
Definition (en) Latitic rock that contains no quartz and between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 8'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:latitic_rock
Notes:

-- Foid bearing monzodiorite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_monzodiorite
Preferred label (en) Foid bearing monzodiorite
Definition (en) Monzodioritic rock that contains between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid mineral.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzodioritic_rock
Notes:

-- Foid bearing monzogabbro --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_monzogabbro
Preferred label (en) Foid bearing monzogabbro
Definition (en) Monzogabbroic rock that contains 0 to 10 percent feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 9'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzogabbroic_rock
Notes:

-- Foid bearing monzonite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_monzonite
Preferred label (en) Foid bearing monzonite
Definition (en) Monzonitic rock that contains 0-10 percent feldspathoid mineral and no quartz in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 8'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzonitic_rock
Notes:

-- Foid bearing syenite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_syenite
Preferred label (en) Foid bearing syenite
Definition (en) Syenitic rock that contains between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid mineral and no quartz in the QAPF fraction. Defined modally in QAPF Field 7'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenitic_rock
Notes:

-- Foid bearing trachyte --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_trachyte
Preferred label (en) Foid bearing trachyte
Definition (en) Trachytic rock that contains between 0 and 10 percent feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction, and no quartz. QAPF field 7'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachytic_rock
Notes:

-- Foid diorite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_diorite
Preferred label (en) Foid diorite
Definition (en) Foid dioritoid in which the plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is greater than 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 14.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_dioritoid
Notes:

-- Foid dioritoid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_dioritoid
Preferred label (en) Foid dioritoid
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline igneous rock in which M is less than 90, the plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is greater than 0.5, feldspathoid minerals form 10-60 percent of the QAPF fraction, plagioclase has anorthite content less than 50 percent. These rocks typically contain large amounts of mafic minerals. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 13 and 14.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_diorite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_monzodiorite
Notes:

-- Foid gabbro --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_gabbro
Preferred label (en) Foid gabbro
Definition (en) Foid gabbroid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 14.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_gabbroid
Related informal terms (en) analcime gabbro
Related informal terms (en) nepheline gabbro
Related informal terms (en) teschenite
Related informal terms (en) theralite
Notes:

-- Foid gabbroid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_gabbroid
Preferred label (en) Foid gabbroid
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline igneous rock in which M is less than 90, the plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is greater than 0.5, feldspathoids form 10-60 percent of the QAPF fraction, and plagioclase has anorthite content greater than 50 percent. These rocks typically contain large amounts of mafic minerals. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 13 and 14.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_gabbro
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_monzogabbro
Notes:

-- Foid monzodiorite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_monzodiorite
Preferred label (en) Foid monzodiorite
Definition (en) Foid dioritoid in which the plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is between 0.1 and 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 13.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_dioritoid
Related informal terms (en) essexite
Notes:

-- Foid monzogabbro --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_monzogabbro
Preferred label (en) Foid monzogabbro
Definition (en) Foid gabbroid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.5 and 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 13.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_gabbroid
Related informal terms (en) essexite
Notes:

-- Foid monzosyenite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_monzosyenite
Preferred label (en) Foid monzosyenite
Definition (en) Foid syenitoid rock that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio of between 0.1 and 0.5. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 12.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_syenitoid
Notes:

-- Foid syenite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_syenite
Preferred label (en) Foid syenite
Definition (en) Foid syenitoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio of less than 0.1. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 11.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_syenitoid
Notes:

-- Foid syenitoid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_syenitoid
Preferred label (en) Foid syenitoid
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline igneous rock with M less than 90, contains between 10 and 60 percent feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction, and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.5. Includes QAPF fields 11 and 12.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_monzosyenite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_syenite
Notes:

-- Foidite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foidite
Preferred label (en) Foidite
Definition (en) Foiditoid that contains greater than 90 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foiditoid
Notes:

-- Foiditoid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foiditoid
Preferred label (en) Foiditoid
Alternative label (en) Foidite (sensu lato)
Alternative label (en) Foiditic rock
Definition (en) Fine grained crystalline rock containing less than 90 percent mafic minerals and more than 60 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 15 or chemically in TAS field F.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fine_grained_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basanitic_foidite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foidite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolitic_foidite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephritic_foidite
Notes:

-- Foidolite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foidolite
Preferred label (en) Foidolite
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline rock containing more than 60 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 15
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Related informal terms (en) ijolite
Related informal terms (en) melteigite
Related informal terms (en) nephelinolite
Related informal terms (en) urtite
Notes:

-- Foliated metamorphic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foliated_metamorphic_rock
Preferred label (en) Foliated metamorphic rock
Definition () Metamorphic rock in which 10 percent or more of the contained mineral grains are elements in a planar or linear fabric. Cataclastic or glassy character precludes classification with this concept.
Source () based on NADM SLTT metamorphic
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gneiss
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mylonitic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phyllite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:schist
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:slate
Related informal terms (en) tectonite
Related informal terms (en) whiteschist
Notes:

-- Fragmental igneous material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fragmental_igneous_material
Preferred label (en) Fragmental igneous material
Definition () igneous_material of unspecified consolidation state in which greater than 75 percent of the rock consists of fragments produced as a result of igneous rock-forming process.
Source () CGI concept definition task group
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fragmental_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroclastic_material
Notes:

-- Fragmental igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fragmental_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Fragmental igneous rock
Definition (en) Igneous rock in which greater than 75 percent of the rock consists of fragments produced as a result of igneous rock-forming process. Includes pyroclastic rocks, autobreccia associated with lava flows and intrusive breccias. Excludes deposits reworked by epiclastic processes (see Tuffite)
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fragmental_igneous_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroclastic_rock
Notes:

-- Framestone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:framestone
Preferred label (en) Framestone
Definition () Carbonate reef rock consisting of a rigid framework of colonies, shells or skeletons, with internal cavities filled with fine sediment; usually created through the activities of colonial organisms.
Source () Hallsworth & Knox 1999; SLTTs 2004, Table 15-3-1
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Gabbro --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbro
Preferred label (en) Gabbro
Definition () Gabbroic rock that contains between 0 and 5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 10 as gabbro.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbroic_rock
Notes:
Comment (en) Note that this category includes gabbro (sensu stricto) of LeMaitre et al. 2002, but is broader, including the other rock types defined by orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-olivine-hornblende mineral ratios.

-- Gabbroic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbroic_rock
Preferred label (en) Gabbroic rock
Definition (en) Gabbroid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.9 in the QAPF fraction. Includes QAPF fields 10*, 10, and 10'. This category includes the various categories defined in LeMaitre et al. (2002) based on the mafic mineralogy, but apparently not subdivided based on the quartz/feldspathoid content.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basic_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbroid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_gabbro
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbro
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_gabbro
Related informal terms (en) Gabbro (sensu stricto)
Related informal terms (en) Gabbronorite
Related informal terms (en) Norite
Related informal terms (en) Troctolite
Notes:

-- Gabbroid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbroid
Preferred label (en) Gabbroid
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline igneous rock that contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, and up to 20 percent quartz or up to 10 percent feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction. The ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is greater than 0.65, and anorthite content of the plagioclase is greater than 50 percent. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 9 and 10 and their subdivisions.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbroic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzogabbroic_rock
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:doleritic_rock
Notes:

-- Generic conglomerate --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_conglomerate
Preferred label (en) Generic conglomerate
Definition (en) Sedimentary rock composed of at least 30 percent rounded to subangular fragments larger than 2 mm in diameter; typically contains finer grained material in interstices between larger fragments. If more than 15 percent of the fine grained matrix is of indeterminant clastic or diagenetic origin and the fabric is matrix supported, may also be categorized as wackestone. If rock has unsorted or poorly sorted texture with a wide range of particle sizes, may also be categorized as diamictite.
Source (en) Neuendorf et al. 2005; SLTTs 2004; particle sizes defined from Krumbein phi scale (W C Krumbein & L L Sloss, Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, 2nd edition, Freeman, San Francisco, 1963; Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938, Manual of Sedimentary Petrography: New York, Appleton Century Co., Inc.)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_conglomerate
Notes:

-- Generic mudstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_mudstone
Preferred label (en) Generic mudstone
Definition () Sedimentary rock consisting of less than 30 percent gravel-size (2 mm) particles and with a mud to sand ratio greater than 1. Clasts may be of any composition or origin.
Source (en) Pettijohn et al. 1987 referenced in Hallsworth & Knox 1999; extrapolated from Folk, 1954, Figure 1a; particle sizes defined from Krumbein phi scale (W C Krumbein & L L Sloss, Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, 2nd edition, Freeman, San Francisco, 1963; Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938, Manual of Sedimentary Petrography: New York, Appleton Century Co., Inc.)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_mudstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_rich_mudstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_mudstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_bearing_mudstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_mudstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:silicate_mudstone
Related informal terms (en) argillite
Notes:
Comment (en) Distinction of intrabasinal, diagenetic, or clastic genesis for very fine-grained carbonate minerals is so interpretive that it is proposed to not define the mudstone category based on intrabasinal vs epiclastic distinction required for clastic sedimentary rock-carbonate sedimentary rock categorization in this system. Schnurrenberger, D., Russell, J. and Kelts, K., 2003, Classification of lacustrine sediments based on sedimentary components: Journal of Paleolimnology, v.29, p141-154.
Comment (en) Note that the shale and siltstone categories may apply to any of the mineralogically defined mudstone categories.

-- Generic sandstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_sandstone
Preferred label (en) Generic sandstone
Definition (en) Sedimentary rock in which less than 30 percent of particles are greater than 2 mm in diameter (gravel) and the sand to mud ratio is at least 1.
Source (en) SLTTs 2004; Neuendorf et al. 2005; particle sizes defined from Krumbein phi scale (W C Krumbein & L L Sloss, Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, 2nd edition, Freeman, San Francisco, 1963; Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938, Manual of Sedimentary Petrography: New York, Appleton Century Co., Inc.)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sandstone
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:grainstone
Notes:

-- Glass rich igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:glass_rich_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Glass rich igneous rock
Definition (en) Igneous rock that contains greater than 50 percent massive glass.
Source () This vocabulary, based on Gillespie and Styles 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:glassy_igneous_rock
Notes:

-- Glassy igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:glassy_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Glassy igneous rock
Definition (en) Igneous rock that consists of greater than 80 percent massive glass.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:glass_rich_igneous_rock
Notes:
History note (en) Change percent criteria from 90 to 80 percent for version 2009.
Comment (en) Note that this category is used for massive glassy rocks. Much of the pyroclastic material in a pyroclastic rock may be composed of glass, but the rock is named based on its fragmental nature.

-- Glaucophane lawsonite epidote metamorphic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:glaucophane_lawsonite_epidote_metamorphic_rock
Preferred label (de) Glaukophanschiefer
Preferred label (en) Glaucophane lawsonite epidote metamorphic rock
Alternative label (de) Blauschiefer
Alternative label (en) Blueschist
Definition (en) A metamorphic rock of roughly basaltic composition, defined by the presence of glaucophane with lawsonite or epidote. Other minerals that may be present include jadeite, albite, chlorite, garnet, and muscovite (phengitic white mica). Typically fine-grained, dark colored. Category for rocks commonly referred to as blueschist.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Related informal terms (en) blueschist
Related informal terms (en) glaucophanite
Notes:
Comment (en) Fabric is weakly developed in this rock in many cases, so the fabric categories 'foliated metamorphic rock, 'schist' or 'granofels' may apply.

-- Gneiss --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gneiss
Preferred label (en) Gneiss
Definition () Foliated metamorphic rock with bands or lenticles rich in granular minerals alternating with bands or lenticles rich in minerals with a flaky or elongate prismatic habit. Mylonitic foliation or well developed, continuous schistosity (greater than 50 percent of the rock consists of grains participate in a planar or linear fabric) precludes classification with this concept.
Source () Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foliated_metamorphic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:orthogneiss
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:paragneiss
Notes:

-- Grainstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:grainstone
Preferred label (en) Grainstone
Alternative label (en) Carbonate grainstone
Definition (en) Carbonate sedimentary rock with recognizable depositional fabric that is grain-supported, and constituent particles are of intrabasinal origin; contains little or no mud matrix. Distinction from sandstone is based on interpretation of intrabasinal origin of clasts and grain-supported fabric, but grainstone definition does not include a grain size criteria.
Source () Dunham 1962
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_sandstone
Notes:

-- Granite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granite
Preferred label (en) Granite
Definition () Phaneritic crystalline rock consisting of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase (typically sodic) in variable amounts, usually with biotite and/or hornblende. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 3.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granitoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzogranite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenogranite
Related informal terms (en) charnockite
Notes:

-- Granitoid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granitoid
Preferred label (en) Granitoid
Alternative label (en) Granitic rock
Definition () Phaneritic crystalline igneous rock consisting of quartz, alkali feldspar and/or plagioclase. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 2, 3, 4 and 5 as alkali feldspar granite, granite, granodiorite or tonalite.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:acidic_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:acidic_igneous_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_granite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granodiorite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tonalite
Notes:

-- Granodiorite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granodiorite
Preferred label (en) Granodiorite
Definition () Phaneritic crystalline rock consisting essentially of quartz, sodic plagioclase and lesser amounts of alkali feldspar with minor hornblende and biotite. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 4.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granitoid
Notes:

-- Granofels --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granofels
Preferred label (en) Granofels
Definition (en) Metamorphic rock with granoblastic fabric and very little or no foliation (less than 10 percent of the mineral grains in the rock are elements in a planar or linear fabric). Grainsize not specified.
Source () SLTTm 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:hornfels
Notes:

-- Granulite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granulite
Preferred label (en) Granulite
Definition (en) Metamorphic rock of high metamorphic grade in which Fe-Mg silicate minerals are dominantly hydroxl-free; feldspar must be present, and muscovite is absent; rock contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, less than 75 percent calcite and/or dolomite, less than 75 percent quartz, less than 50 percent iron-bearing minerals (hematite, magnetite, limonite-group, siderite, iron-sulfides), and less than 50 percent calc-silicate minerals.
Source (en) Fettes and Desmons (2007). See also Wimmenauer (1985), Winkler (1979) (D.R. Bowes (1989), The Encyclopedia of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology; Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN: 0-442-20623-2 ; wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granulite accessed 5/30/09
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gneiss
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granofels
Related informal terms (en) nebulite
Notes:
Comment (en) According to Fettes and Desmons (2007) the main calc-silicate minerals are calcic garnet, calcic plagioclase, calcic scapolite, diopside-hedenbergite, epidote group minerals, hydrogrossular, johannsenite, prehnite, pumpellyite, titanite, vesuvianite, wollastonite. It is unclear from definitions in Fettes and Desmons (2002) if calcic plagioclase is to be considered part of the required feldspar content of a granulite, or a calc-silicate phase.
Comment (en) Wimmenauer (1985) requires granulite to consist of at least 20 percent feldspar. Garnet is frequently present; some hornblende or biotite may be present. The rock has a granoblastic texture and gneissose to massive structure; grain size and fabric may be variable on a decimetric scale. Foliation is less well developed than in rock that would typically be called gneiss. The minerals present in a granulite vary depending on the protolith and the temperature and pressure conditions experienced during metamorphism.

-- Gravel --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gravel
Preferred label (en) Gravel
Definition (en) Clastic sediment containing greater than 30 percent gravel-size particles (greater than 2.0 mm diameter). Gravel in which more than half of the particles are of epiclastic origin
Source () definition of gravel from SLTTs 2004; particle sizes defined from Krumbein phi scale (W C Krumbein & L L Sloss, Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, 2nd edition, Freeman, San Francisco, 1963; Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938, Manual of Sedimentary Petrography: New York, Appleton Century Co., Inc.)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gravel_size_sediment
Notes:

-- Gravel size sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gravel_size_sediment
Preferred label (en) Gravel size sediment
Definition (en) Sediment containing greater than 30 percent gravel-size particles (greater than 2.0 mm diameter). Composition or gensis of clasts not specified.
Source (en) SLTTs 2004; particle sizes defined from Krumbein phi scale (W C Krumbein & L L Sloss, Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, 2nd edition, Freeman, San Francisco, 1963; Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938, Manual of Sedimentary Petrography: New York, Appleton Century Co., Inc.)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:boulder_gravel_size_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:cobble_gravel_size_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gravel
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pebble_gravel_size_sediment
Notes:

-- High magnesium fine grained igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:high_magnesium_fine_grained_igneous_rocks
Preferred label (en) High magnesium fine grained igneous rock
Definition (en) fine-grained igneous rock that contains unusually high concentration of MgO. For rocks that contain greater than 52 percent silica, MgO must be greater than 8 percent. For rocks containing less than 52 percent silica, MgO must be greater than 12 percent.
Source (en) LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fine_grained_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:boninite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:komatiitic_rock
Related informal terms (en) boninite
Related informal terms (en) picrite
Notes:

-- Hornblendite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:hornblendite
Preferred label (en) Hornblendite
Definition () Ultramafic rock that consists of greater than 40 percent hornblende plus pyroxene and has a hornblende to pyroxene ratio greater than 1. Includes olivine hornblendite, olivine-pyroxene hornblendite, pyroxene hornblendite, and hornblendite.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ultramafic_igneous_rock
Notes:

-- Hornfels --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:hornfels
Preferred label (en) Hornfels
Definition (en) Granofels formed by contact metamorphism, composed of a mosaic of equidimensional grains in a characteristically granoblastic or decussate matrix; porphyroblasts or relict phenocrysts may be present. Typically fine grained.
Source () IUGS SCMR 2007 (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/SCMR/)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granofels
Related informal terms (en) skarn
Notes:

-- Hybrid sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:hybrid_sediment
Preferred label (en) Hybrid sediment
Definition (en) Sediment that does not fit any of the other sediment composition/genesis categories. Sediment consisting of three or more components which form more than 5 percent but less than 50 precent of the material.
Source () Hallsworth and Knox, 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Notes:

-- Hybrid sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:hybrid_sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Hybrid sedimentary rock
Definition (en) Sedimentary rock that does not fit any of the other composition/genesis categories. Sedimentary rock consisting of three or more components which form more than 5 percent but less than 50 precent of the material.
Source () Hallsworth and Knox, 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Igneous material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_material
Preferred label (en) Igneous material
Definition () Earth material formed as a result of igneous processes, eg. intrusion and cooling of magma in the crust, volcanic eruption.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:compound_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basic_igneous_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fragmental_igneous_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:intermediate_composition_igneous_material
Notes:

-- Igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Igneous rock
Definition (en) rock formed as a result of igneous processes, for example intrusion and cooling of magma in the crust, or volcanic eruption.
Source () Neuendorf et al 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:acidic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:doleritic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:exotic_composition_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fine_grained_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fragmental_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:glass_rich_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:intermediate_composition_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:porphyry
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ultrabasic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ultramafic_igneous_rock
Notes:

-- Impact generated material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impact_generated_material
Preferred label (en) Impact generated material
Definition (en) Material that contains features indicative of shock metamorphism, such as microscopic planar deformation features within grains or shatter cones, interpreted to be the result of extraterrestrial bolide impact. Includes breccias and melt rocks.
Source () Stöffler and Grieve 2007; Jackson 1997
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_material
Related informal terms (en) impact breccia
Related informal terms (en) impact metamorphic rock
Related informal terms (en) suevite
Related informal terms (en) tagamite
Related informal terms (en) tektite
Notes:

-- Impure calcareous carbonate sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_calcareous_carbonate_sediment
Preferred label (en) Impure calcareous carbonate sediment
Alternative label (en) calcareous marl
Definition (en) Carbonate sediment in which between 50 and 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin, and a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_carbonate_sediment
Notes:

-- Impure carbonate sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_carbonate_sediment
Preferred label (en) Impure carbonate sediment
Alternative label (en) marl
Definition (en) Carbonate sediment in which between 50 and 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_calcareous_carbonate_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_dolomitic_sediment
Notes:

-- Impure carbonate sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Impure carbonate sedimentary rock
Alternative label (en) marlstone
Definition (en) Sedimentary rock in which between 50 and 90 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are composed of carbonate minerals.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_dolostone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_limestone
Related informal terms (en) marlstone
Notes:

-- Impure dolomitic sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_dolomitic_sediment
Preferred label (en) Impure dolomitic sediment
Alternative label (en) dolomitic marl
Definition (en) Carbonate sediment in which between 50 and 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin, and the ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_carbonate_sediment
Notes:

-- Impure dolomite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_dolostone
Preferred label (en) Impure dolomite
Alternative label (en) Impure dolomitic or magnesian carbonate sedimentary rock
Alternative label (en) Impure dolostone
Alternative label (en) dolomitic marlstone
Definition (en) Impure carbonate sedimentary rock with a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_or_magnesian_sedimentary_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Related informal terms (en) marlstone
Notes:

-- Impure limestone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_limestone
Preferred label (en) Impure limestone
Alternative label (en) calcareous marlstone
Definition (en) Impure carbonate sedimentary rock with a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1.
Source (en) This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:impure_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Related informal terms (en) marlstone
Notes:

-- Intermediate composition igneous material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:intermediate_composition_igneous_material
Preferred label (en) Intermediate composition igneous material
Definition () Igneous material with between 52 and 63 percent SiO2.
Source () after LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:intermediate_composition_igneous_rock
Notes:

-- Intermediate composition igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:intermediate_composition_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Intermediate composition igneous rock
Definition () Igneous rock with between 52 and 63 percent SiO2.
Source () after LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:intermediate_composition_igneous_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:andesite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dioritoid
Notes:

-- Iron rich sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:iron_rich_sediment
Preferred label (en) Iron rich sediment
Definition () Sediment that consists of at least 50 percent iron-bearing minerals (hematite, magnetite, limonite-group, siderite, iron-sulfides), as determined by hand-lens or petrographic analysis. Corresponds to a rock typically containing 15 percent iron by weight.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:iron_rich_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Notes:

-- Iron rich sedimentary material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:iron_rich_sedimentary_material
Preferred label (en) Iron rich sedimentary material
Definition () Sedimentary material of unspecified consolidation state that consists of at least 50 percent iron-bearing minerals (hematite, magnetite, limonite-group, siderite, iron-sulfides), as determined by hand-lens or petrographic analysis. Corresponds to a rock typically containing 15 percent iron by weight.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:chemical_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:iron_rich_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:iron_rich_sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Iron rich sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:iron_rich_sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Iron rich sedimentary rock
Definition () Sedimentary rock that consists of at least 50 percent iron-bearing minerals (hematite, magnetite, limonite-group, siderite, iron-sulfides), as determined by hand-lens or petrographic analysis. Corresponds to a rock typically containing 15 percent iron by weight.
Source () Hallsworth and Knox 1999; SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:iron_rich_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Kalsilitic and melilitic rocks --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:kalsilitic_and_melilitic_rock
Preferred label (en) Kalsilitic and melilitic rocks
Definition (en) Igneous rock containing greater than 10 percent melilite or kalsilite. Typically undersaturated, ultrapotassic (kalsilitic rocks) or calcium-rich (melilitic rocks) mafic or ultramafic rocks.
Source () based on LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:exotic_composition_igneous_rock
Related informal terms (en) coppaelite
Related informal terms (en) kalsilitite
Related informal terms (en) katungite
Related informal terms (en) mafurite
Related informal terms (en) melilitite
Related informal terms (en) melilitolite
Related informal terms (en) ugandite
Related informal terms (en) venanzite
Notes:
History note (en) 2009-12-14 SMR change ID and pref label from 'exotic alkalic igneous rock' to kalsilitic igneous rock to avoid confusion with 'exotic alkaline rock' based on OGE recommendation.

-- Komatiitic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:komatiitic_rock
Preferred label (en) Komatiitic rock
Definition (en) Ultramafic, magnesium-rich volcanic rock, typically with spinifex texture of intergrown skeletal and bladed olivine and pyroxene crystals set in abundant glass. Includes komatiite and meimechite.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:high_magnesium_fine_grained_igneous_rocks
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ultramafic_igneous_rock
Related informal terms (en) komatiite
Related informal terms (en) meimechite
Notes:

-- Latite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:latite
Preferred label (en) Latite
Definition (en) Latitic rock that contains between 0 and 5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 8.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:latitic_rock
Notes:

-- Latitic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:latitic_rock
Preferred label (en) Latitic rock
Definition (en) Trachytoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.35 and 0.65. QAPF fields 8, 8' and 8*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachytoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_latite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:latite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_latite
Notes:

-- Lignite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:lignite
Preferred label (en) Lignite
Alternative label (en) Low rank coal
Definition (en) Coal that has a gross calorific value less than 24 MJ/kg (determined in conformance with ISO 1928), and vitrinite mean random reflectance less than 0.6% (determined in conformance with ISO 7404-5). Gross calorific value is recalculated to a moist, ash free basis using bed moisture (determined according to ISO 1015 or ISO 5068). Includes all low-rank coals, including sub-bitiminous coal. A consolidated, dull, soft brown to black coal having many readily discernible plant fragments set in a finer grained organic matrix. Tends to crack and fall apart on drying. Operationally sub-bituminous and bitiminous coal are qualitatively distinguished based on brown streak for sub-bitiminous coal and black streak for bituminous coal.
Source (en) Economic Commission for Europe, Committee on Sustainable Energy- United Nations (ECE-UN), 1998, International Classification of in-Seam Coals: Energy 19, 41 pp.
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:coal
Related informal terms (en) brown coal
Related informal terms (en) metalignite
Related informal terms (en) ortholignite
Related informal terms (en) sub-bituminous coal
Notes:

-- Limestone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:limestone
Preferred label (en) Limestone
Definition (en) Pure carbonate sedimentary rock with a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1. Includes limestone and dolomitic limestone.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:chalk
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:travertine
Related informal terms (en) dolomitic limestone
Notes:

-- Marble --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:marble
Preferred label (en) Marble
Definition () Metamorphic rock consisting of greater than 75 percent fine- to coarse-grained recrystallized calcite and/or dolomite; usually with a granoblastic, saccharoidal texture.
Source () IUGS SCMR 2007 (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/SCMR/), SLTTm1.0 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Notes:

-- Material formed in surficial environment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:material_formed_in_surficial_environment
Preferred label (en) Material formed in surficial environment
Definition (en) Material that is the product of weathering processes operating on pre-existing rocks or deposits, analogous to hydrothermal or metasomatic rocks, but formed at ambient Earth surface temperature and pressure.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:bauxite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:duricrust
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:residual_material
Notes:

-- Metamorphic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Preferred label (en) Metamorphic rock
Definition (en) Rock formed by solid-state mineralogical, chemical and/or structural changes to a pre-existing rock, in response to marked changes in temperature, pressure, shearing stress and chemical environment.
Source () Jackson 1997
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:amphibolite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:chlorite_actinolite_epidote_metamorphic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:eclogite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foliated_metamorphic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:glaucophane_lawsonite_epidote_metamorphic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granofels
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granulite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:marble
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:migmatite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartzite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:serpentinite
Related informal terms (en) buchite
Related informal terms (en) fulgurite
Notes:
Comment (en) Robertson (1999) defines the boundary between diagenesis and metamorphism in sedimentary rocks as follows: “…the boundary between diagenesis and metamorphism is somewhat arbitrary and strongly dependent on the lithologies involved. For example changes take place in organic materials at lower temperatures than in rocks dominated by silicate minerals. In mudrocks, a white mica (illite) crystallinity value of < 0.42D.2U obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis, is used to define the onset of metamorphism (Kisch, 1991). In this scheme, the first appearance of glaucophane, lawsonite, paragonite, prehnite, pumpellyite or stilpnomelane is taken to indicate the lower limit of metamorphism (Frey and Kisch, 1987; Bucher and Frey, 1994; Frey and Robinson, 1998). Most workers agree that such mineral growth starts at 150 ± 50° C in silicate rocks. Many lithologies may show no change in mineralogy under these conditions and hence the recognition of the onset of metamorphism will vary with bulk composition.”

-- Metasomatic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metasomatic_rock
Preferred label (en) Metasomatic rock
Definition (en) Rock that has fabric and composition indicating open-system mineralogical and chemical changes in response to interaction with a fluid phase, typically water rich.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:skarn
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:spilite
Related informal terms (en) Aceite
Related informal terms (en) argillisite
Related informal terms (en) beresite
Related informal terms (en) endoskarn
Related informal terms (en) fenite
Related informal terms (en) greisen
Related informal terms (en) gumbeite
Related informal terms (en) propylite
Related informal terms (en) rodingite
Related informal terms (en) spilite
Notes:
Comment (en) SLTTm (2004) proposed the following criteria to distinguish hydrothermally altered or metasomatic rock from igneous rock. "The rock is classified as metamorphic if (1) the texture has been modified such that it can no longer be considered igneous, (2) the bulk composition of the rock is inconsistent with compositions that can be derived purely from a magma and associated processes such as assimilation and differentiation, or (3) minerals inconsistent with magmatic crystallization are present."

-- Mica schist --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mica_schist
Preferred label (en) Mica schist
Definition (en) A schist that consists of more than 50 percent mica minerals, typically muscovite or biotite. Special type included to distinguish this common variety of schist.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:schist
Notes:
Comment (en) Include single subcategory of schist to indicate this common kind of schist. ‘Mica rich metamorphic rock’ for compound use with schist fabric term would be more compatible with treatment of blueschist (Glaucophane lawsonite epidote metamorphic rock) and greenschist (Chlorite actinolite epidote metamorphic rock), but based on the assumption that schist is the only rock type that will meet the mica-rich criteria, it seems reasonable to include as a subtype of schist.

-- Migmatite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:migmatite
Preferred label (en) Migmatite
Definition () Silicate metamorphic rock that is pervasively heterogeneous on a decimeter to meter scale that typically consists of darker and lighter parts; the darker parts usually exhibit features of metamorphic rocks whereas the lighter parts are of igneous-looking appearance.
Source () Fette and Desmons (2007) (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/SCMR/)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Related informal terms (en) agmatite
Related informal terms (en) diatectite
Related informal terms (en) dictyonite
Related informal terms (en) ditexite
Related informal terms (en) metatexite
Related informal terms (en) nebulite
Related informal terms (en) phlebite
Related informal terms (en) stromatite
Related informal terms (en) venite
Notes:

-- Monzodiorite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzodiorite
Preferred label (en) Monzodiorite
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline igneous rock consisting of sodic plagioclase (An0 to An50), alkali feldspar, hornblende and biotite, with or without pyroxene, and 0 to 5 percent quartz. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 9.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzodioritic_rock
Notes:

-- Monzodioritic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzodioritic_rock
Preferred label (en) Monzodioritic rock
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline igneous rock consisting of sodic plagioclase (An0 to An50), alkali feldspar, hornblende and biotite, with or without pyroxene, and 0 to 10 percent feldspathoid or 0 to 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. Plagioclase to total feldspar ratio in the QAPF fraction is between 0.65 and 0.9. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 9, 9' and 9* as monzodiorite, foid-beaing monzodiorite, and quartz monzodiorite.
Source () This vocabulary; LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dioritoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_monzodiorite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzodiorite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_monzodiorite
Notes:

-- Monzogabbro --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzogabbro
Preferred label (en) Monzogabbro
Definition (en) Monzogabbroic rock that contains between 0 an 5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 9 .
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002, This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzogabbroic_rock
Notes:

-- Monzogabbroic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzogabbroic_rock
Preferred label (en) Monzogabbroic rock
Definition (en) Gabbroid with a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.65 and 0.9. QAPF field 9, 9 prime and 9 asterisk
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002, This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbroid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_monzogabbro
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzogabbro
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_monzogabbro
Notes:

-- Monzogranite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzogranite
Preferred label (en) Monzogranite
Definition (en) Granite that has a plagiolcase to total feldspar ratio between 0.35 and 0.65. QAPF field 3b.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granite
Notes:

-- Monzonite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzonite
Preferred label (en) Monzonite
Definition (en) Monzonitic rock that contains 0-5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 8.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzonitic_rock
Notes:

-- Monzonitic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzonitic_rock
Preferred label (en) Monzonitic rock
Definition (en) Syenitoid with a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.35 and 0.65. Includes rocks in QAPF fields 8, 8*, and 8'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenitoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_monzonite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzonite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_monzonite
Notes:

-- Mud --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud
Preferred label (en) Mud
Definition (en) Clastic sediment consisting of less than 30 percent gravel-size (2 mm) particles and with a mud-size to sand-size particle ratio greater than 1. More than half of the particles are of epiclastic origin.
Source () definition of mud from SLTTs 2004 muddy sediment; particle sizes defined from Krumbein phi scale (W C Krumbein & L L Sloss, Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, 2nd edition, Freeman, San Francisco, 1963; Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938, Manual of Sedimentary Petrography: New York, Appleton Century Co., Inc.)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud_size_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clay
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:silt
Notes:

-- Mud size sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud_size_sediment
Preferred label (en) Mud size sediment
Definition (en) Sediment consisting of less than 30 percent gravel-size (2 mm) particles and with a mud-size to sand-size particle ratio greater than 1. Clasts may be of any composition or origin.
Source (en) based on SLTTs 2004; Neuendorf et al. 2005; particle sizes defined from Krumbein phi scale (W C Krumbein & L L Sloss, Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, 2nd edition, Freeman, San Francisco, 1963; Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938, Manual of Sedimentary Petrography: New York, Appleton Century Co., Inc.)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_mud
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_rich_mud
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ooze
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:silicate_mud
Notes:

-- Mylonitic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mylonitic_rock
Preferred label (en) Mylonitic rock
Definition (en) Metamorphic rock characterised by a foliation resulting from tectonic grain size reduction, in which more than 10 percent of the rock volume has undergone grain size reduction. Includes protomylonite, mylonite, ultramylonite, and blastomylonite.
Source () Marshak & Mitra 1988
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fault_related_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foliated_metamorphic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phyllonite
Related informal terms (en) blastomylonite
Related informal terms (en) mesomylonite
Related informal terms (en) mylonite
Related informal terms (en) protomylonite
Related informal terms (en) ultramylonite
Notes:

-- Natural unconsolidated material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:natural_unconsolidated_material
Preferred label (en) Natural unconsolidated material
Definition () Unconsolidated material known to have natural, ie. not human-made, origin.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:unconsolidated_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephra
Notes:

-- Non-clastic siliceous sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sediment
Preferred label (en) Non-clastic siliceous sediment
Definition () Sediment that consists of at least 50 percent silicate mineral material, deposited directly by chemical or biological processes at the depositional surface, or in particles formed by chemical or biological processes within the basin of deposition.
Source () NGMDB 2008; Hallsworth and Knox 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:siliceous_ooze
Notes:

-- Non-clastic siliceous sedimentary material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sedimentary_material
Preferred label (en) Non-clastic siliceous sedimentary material
Definition () Sedimentary material that consists of at least 50 percent silicate mineral material, deposited directly by chemical or biological processes at the depositional surface, or in particles formed by chemical or biological processes within the basin of deposition.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Non-clastic siliceous sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Non-clastic siliceous sedimentary rock
Definition () Sedimentary rock that consists of at least 50 percent silicate mineral material, deposited directly by chemical or biological processes at the depositional surface, or in particles formed by chemical or biological processes within the basin of deposition.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:biogenic_silica_sedimentary_rock
Related informal terms (en) chert
Related informal terms (en) flint
Notes:

-- Ooze --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ooze
Preferred label (en) Ooze
Alternative label (en) biogenic mud
Definition (en) Biogenic sediment consisting of less than 1 percent gravel-size (greater than or equal to 2 mm) particles, with a sand to mud ratio less than 1 to 9, and less than 50 percent carbonate minerals.
Source (en) based on Bates and Jackson 1987 & Hallsworth & Knox 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:biogenic_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud_size_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_ooze
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:siliceous_ooze
Notes:
History note (en) update definition, add mud as related term in this version
Comment (en) Neuendorf et al. 2005 put cutoff at 30 percent skeletal remains; this is raised to 50 percent in This vocabulary for consistency with definition of other Biogenic sediment category

-- Organic bearing mudstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_bearing_mudstone
Preferred label (en) Organic bearing mudstone
Alternative label (en) Oil shale
Definition (en) Mudstone that contains a significant amount of organic carbon, typically kerogen. Commonly finely laminated, brown or black in color.
Source (en) Neuendorf et al. 2005; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_shale
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_mudstone
Related informal terms (en) tar sand
Notes:

-- Organic rich sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sediment
Preferred label (en) Organic rich sediment
Definition () Sediment with color, composition, texture and apparent density indicating greater than 50 percent organic content by weight on a moisture-free basis.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:biogenic_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:peat
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sapropel
Notes:
Comment (en) The broader relation from organic rich sediment to biogenic sediment is based on the inference that organic rich material is always biogenic in origin. Biogenic is a broader category because not all biogenic materials are organic rich, for example shells or phosphatic bone.

-- Organic rich sedimentary material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sedimentary_material
Preferred label (en) Organic rich sedimentary material
Definition () Sedimentary material in which 50 percent or more of the primary sedimentary material is organic carbon.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Organic rich sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Organic rich sedimentary rock
Definition () Sedimentary rock with color, composition, texture and apparent density indicating greater than 50 percent organic content by weight on a moisture-free basis.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:coal
Notes:
Comment (en) sapropelic coal, and asphaltite are not differentiated in This vocabulary

-- Orthogneiss --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:orthogneiss
Preferred label (en) Orthogneiss
Definition (en) A gneiss with mineralogy and texture indicating derivation from a phaneritic igneous rock protolith. Typically consists of abundant feldspar, with quartz, and variable hornblende, biotite, and muscovite, with a relatively homogeneous character.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gneiss
Notes:

-- Packstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:packstone
Preferred label (en) Packstone
Definition (en) Carbonate sedimentary rock with discernible grain supported depositional texture, containing greater than 10 percent grains, and constituent particles are of intrabasinal origin; intergranular spaces are filled by matrix.
Source () Hallsworth & Knox 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Notes:
Comment (en) Note that this category overlaps with 'carbonate mudstone'.

-- Paragneiss --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:paragneiss
Preferred label (en) Paragneiss
Definition (en) A gneiss with mineralogy and texture indicating derivation from a sedimentary rock protolith. Typically consists of abundant quartz, mica, or calcsilicate minerals; aluminosilicate minerals or garnet commonly present. Composition of rock tends to be more variable on a decimetric scale that in orthogneiss.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gneiss
Notes:

-- Peat --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:peat
Preferred label (en) Peat
Definition () Unconsolidated organic-rich sediment composed of at least 50 percent semi-carbonised plant remains; individual remains commonly seen with unaided eye; yellowish brown to brownish black; generally fibrous texture; can be plastic or friable. In its natural state it can be readily cut and has a very high moisture content, generally greater than 90 percent. Liptinite to Inertinite ratio is less than one (Economic Commission for Europe, Committee on Sustainable Energy- United Nations (ECE-UN), 1998, International Classification of in-Seam Coals: Energy 19, 41 pp.)
Source () Hallsworth & Knox 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sediment
Notes:

-- Pebble gravel size sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pebble_gravel_size_sediment
Preferred label (en) Pebble gravel size sediment
Definition () Sediment containing greater than 30 percent pebble-size particles (2.0 -64 mm in diameter)
Source () Wentworth size scale
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gravel_size_sediment
Notes:

-- Pegmatite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pegmatite
Preferred label (en) Pegmatite
Definition () Exceptionally coarse grained crystalline rock with interlocking crystals; most grains are 1cm or more diameter; composition is generally that of granite, but the term may refer to the coarse grained facies of any type of igneous rock;usually found as irregular dikes, lenses, or veins associated with plutons or batholiths.
Source () Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Notes:

-- Peridotite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:peridotite
Preferred label (en) Peridotite
Definition () Ultramafic rock consisting of more than 40 percent (by volume) olivine with pyroxene and/or amphibole and little or no feldspar. Commonly altered to serpentinite. Includes rocks defined modally in the ultramafic rock classification as dunite, harzburgite, lherzolite, wehrlite, olivinite, pyroxene peridotite, pyroxene hornblende peridotite or hornblende peridotite.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ultramafic_igneous_rock
Related informal terms (en) dunite
Related informal terms (en) harzburgite
Related informal terms (en) lherzolite
Related informal terms (en) olivinite
Related informal terms (en) wherlite
Notes:

-- Phaneritic igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Phaneritic igneous rock
Alternative label (en) Coarse grained crystalline igneous rock
Alternative label (en) Plutonic rock
Definition () Igneous rock in which the framework of the rock consists of individual crystals that can be discerned with the unaided eye. Bounding grain size is on the order of 32 to 100 microns. Igneous rocks with 'exotic' composition are excluded from this concept.
Source () Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anorthositic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:aplite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dioritoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_dioritoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_gabbroid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_syenitoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foidolite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbroid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granitoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:hornblendite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pegmatite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:peridotite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroxenite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_rich_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenitoid
Notes:

-- Phonolite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolilte
Preferred label (en) Phonolite
Definition (en) Phonolitoid in which the plagioclase to total feldspar ratio is less than 0.1. Rock consists of alkali feldspar, feldspathoid minerals, and mafic minerals.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolitoid
Related informal terms (en) peralkaline phonolite
Notes:

-- Phonolitic basanite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolitic_basanite
Preferred label (en) Phonolitic basanite
Definition (en) Tephritoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.5 and 0.9, and contains more than 10 percent normative (CIPW) olivine.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephritoid
Notes:

-- Phonolitic foidite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolitic_foidite
Preferred label (en) Phonolitic foidite
Definition (en) Foiditoid that contains less than 90 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction, and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio that is less than 0.5
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foiditoid
Notes:

-- Phonolitic tephrite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolitic_tephrite
Preferred label (en) Phonolitic tephrite
Definition (en) Tephritoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.5 and 0.9, and contains less than 10 percent normative (CIPW) olivine.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephritoid
Notes:

-- Phonolitoid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolitoid
Preferred label (en) Phonolitoid
Alternative label (en) Phonolitic rock
Definition (en) Fine grained igneous rock than contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, between 10 and 60 percent feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.5. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 11 and 12, and TAS field Ph.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fine_grained_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolilte
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephritic_phonolite
Notes:

-- Phosphate rich sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phosphate_rich_sediment
Preferred label (en) Phosphate rich sediment
Definition () Sediment in which at least 50 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are phosphate minerals.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phosphate_rich_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Notes:
History note (en) change phosphatic to phosphate rich in v 201001

-- Phosphate rich sedimentary material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phosphate_rich_sedimentary_material
Preferred label (en) Phosphate rich sedimentary material
Definition () Sedimentary material in which at least 50 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are phosphate minerals.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phosphate_rich_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phosphorite
Notes:

-- Phosphorite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phosphorite
Preferred label (en) Phosphorite
Definition () Sedimentary rock in which at least 50 percent of the primary or recrystallized constituents are phosphate minerals. Most commonly occurs as a bedded primary or reworked secondary marine rock, composed of microcrystalline carbonate fluorapatite in the form of lamina, pellets, oolites and nodules, and skeletal, shell and bone fragments.
Source () Hallsworth&Knox 1999, Jackson 1997
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phosphate_rich_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Phyllite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phyllite
Preferred label (en) Phyllite
Definition () Rock with a well developed, continuous schistosity, an average grain size between 0.1 and 0.5 millimeters, and a silvery sheen on cleavage surfaces. Individual phyllosilicate grains are barely visible with the unaided eye.
Source () IUGS SCMR 2007 (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/SCMR/)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foliated_metamorphic_rock
Notes:

-- Phyllonite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phyllonite
Preferred label (en) Phyllonite
Definition () Mylonitic rock composed largely of fine-grained mica that imparts a sheen to foliation surfaces; may have flaser lamination, isoclinal folding, and deformed veins, which indicate significant shearing. Macroscopically resembles phyllite, but formed by mechanical degradation of initially coarser rock.
Source () NADM metamorphic rock vocabulary SLTTm1.0; Marshak & Mitra 1988
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mylonitic_rock
Notes:

-- Porphyry --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:porphyry
Preferred label (en) Porphyry
Definition () Igneous rock that contains conspicuous phenocrysts in a finer grained groundmass; groundmass itself may be phaneritic or fine-grained.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Notes:

-- Pure calcareous carbonate sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_calcareous_carbonate_sediment
Preferred label (en) Pure calcareous carbonate sediment
Alternative label (en) lime sediment
Definition (en) Carbonate sediment in which greater than 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin, and a calcite (plus aragonite) to dolomite ratio greater than 1 to 1.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:calcareous_carbonate_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_sediment
Notes:

-- Pure carbonate mudstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_mudstone
Preferred label (en) Pure carbonate mudstone
Definition (en) Mudstone that consists of greater than 90 percent carbonate minerals of intrabasinal orign in the mud fraction, and contains less than 10 percent allochems. The original depositional texture is preserved and fabric is matrix supported. Carbonate mudstone of Dunham (1962)
Source () Dunham 1962
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_mudstone
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_mudstone
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Pure carbonate sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_sediment
Preferred label (en) Pure carbonate sediment
Definition (en) Carbonate sediment in which greater than 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_calcareous_carbonate_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_dolomitic_sediment
Notes:

-- Pure carbonate sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Pure carbonate sedimentary rock
Definition (en) Sedimentary rock in which greater than 90 percent of the primary and/or recrystallized constituents are carbonate minerals.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolostone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:limestone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_mudstone
Notes:

-- Pure dolomitic sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_dolomitic_sediment
Preferred label (en) Pure dolomitic sediment
Definition (en) Carbonate sediment in which greater than 90 percent of the constituents are composed of one (or more) of the carbonate minerals in particles of intrabasinal origin, and a ratio of magnesium carbonate to calcite (plus aragonite) greater than 1 to 1.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dolomitic_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pure_carbonate_sediment
Notes:

-- Pyroclastic material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroclastic_material
Preferred label (en) Pyroclastic material
Definition () Fragmental igneous material that consists of more than 75 percent of particles formed by disruption as a direct result of volcanic action.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fragmental_igneous_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroclastic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephra
Notes:

-- Pyroclastic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroclastic_rock
Preferred label (en) Pyroclastic rock
Definition () Fragmental igneous rock that consists of greater than 75 percent fragments produced as a direct result of eruption or extrusion of magma from within the earth onto its surface. Includes autobreccia associated with lava flows and excludes deposits reworked by epiclastic processes.
Source () based on LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fragmental_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroclastic_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ash_tuff_lapillistone_and_lapilli_tuff
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tuff_breccia_agglomerate_or_pyroclastic_breccia
Notes:

-- Pyroxenite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroxenite
Preferred label (en) Pyroxenite
Definition () Ultramafic phaneritic igneous rock composed almost entirely of one or more pyroxenes and occasionally biotite, hornblende and olivine. Includes rocks defined modally in the ultramafic rock classification as olivine pyroxenite, olivine-hornblende pyroxenite, pyroxenite, orthopyroxenite, clinopyroxenite and websterite.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ultramafic_igneous_rock
Related informal terms (en) clinopyroxenite
Related informal terms (en) orthopyroxenite
Related informal terms (en) websterite
Notes:

-- Quartz alkali feldspar syenite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_alkali_feldspar_syenite
Preferred label (en) Quartz alkali feldspar syenite
Definition (en) Alkali feldspar syenitic rock that contains 5 to 20 percent quartz and no feldspathoid in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 6*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_syenitic_rock
Notes:

-- Quartz alkali feldspar trachyte --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_alkali_feldspar_trachyte
Preferred label (en) Quartz alkali feldspar trachyte
Definition (en) Alkali feldspar trachytic rock that contains and between 5 and 20 percent quartz mineral in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 6*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_trachytic_rock
Notes:

-- Quartz anorthosite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_anorthosite
Preferred label (en) Quartz anorthosite
Definition (en) Anorthositic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anorthositic_rock
Notes:

-- Quartz diorite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_diorite
Preferred label (en) Quartz diorite
Definition (en) Dioritic rock that contains between 5 to 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10*.
Source (en) LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:dioritic_rock
Notes:

-- Quartz gabbro --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_gabbro
Preferred label (en) Quartz gabbro
Definition (en) Gabbroic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 10*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gabbroic_rock
Notes:

-- Quartz latite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_latite
Preferred label (en) Quartz latite
Definition (en) Latitic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 8*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:latitic_rock
Notes:

-- Quartz monzodiorite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_monzodiorite
Preferred label (en) Quartz monzodiorite
Definition (en) Monzodioritic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzodioritic_rock
Notes:

-- Quartz monzogabbro --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_monzogabbro
Preferred label (en) Quartz monzogabbro
Definition (en) Monzogabbroic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 9*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzogabbroic_rock
Notes:

-- Quartz monzonite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_monzonite
Preferred label (en) Quartz monzonite
Definition (en) Monzonitic rock that contains 5-20 percent quartz iin the QAPF fraction. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF Field 8*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzonitic_rock
Notes:

-- Quartz rich igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_rich_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Quartz rich igneous rock
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline igneous rock that contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals and contains greater than 60 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction.
Source () Gillespie and Styles 1999; LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:acidic_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Related informal terms (en) quartz-rich granitoid
Related informal terms (en) quartzolite
Notes:
Comment (en) Occurrence of igneous rocks meeting this criteria seems to be vanishingly rare, thus subdividing the category does not seem warranted for the purposes of This vocabulary. Future usage of the vocabulary may motivate including quatzolite and quartz-rich granitoid in future revisions

-- Quartz syenite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_syenite
Preferred label (en) Quartz syenite
Definition (en) Syenitic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. Defined modally in QAPF Field 7*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenitic_rock
Notes:

-- Quartz trachyte --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_trachyte
Preferred label (en) Quartz trachyte
Definition (en) Trachytic rock that contains between 5 and 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction. QAPF field 7*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachytic_rock
Notes:

-- Quartzite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartzite
Preferred label (en) Quartzite
Definition () Metamorphic rock consisting of greater than or equal to 75 percent quartz; typically granoblastic texture.
Source () after Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Related informal terms (en) itacolumite
Notes:

-- Residual material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:residual_material
Preferred label (en) Residual material
Definition (en) Material of composite origin resulting from weathering processes at the Earth’s surface, with genesis dominated by removal of chemical constituents by aqueous leaching. Miinor clastic, chemical, or organic input may also contribute. Consolidation state is not inherent in definition, but typically material is unconsolidated or weakly consolidated.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:material_formed_in_surficial_environment
Notes:

-- Rhyolite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rhyolite
Preferred label (en) Rhyolite
Definition (en) rhyolitoid in which the ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is between 0.1 and 0.65.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rhyolitoid
Related informal terms (en) liparite
Related informal terms (en) rhyodacite
Notes:

-- Rhyolitoid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rhyolitoid
Preferred label (en) Rhyolitoid
Alternative label (en) Rhyolitic rock
Definition (en) fine_grained_igneous_rock consisting of quartz and alkali feldspar, with minor plagioclase and biotite, in a microcrystalline, cryptocrystalline or glassy groundmass. Flow texture is common. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 2 and 3 or chemically in TAS Field R as rhyolite. QAPF normative definition is based on modal mineralogy thus: less than 90 percent mafic minerals, between 20 and 60 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction, and ratio of plagioclse to total feldspar is less than 0.65.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:acidic_igneous_rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fine_grained_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_rhyolite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rhyolite
Notes:
Comment (en) Note that technical definition, based on modal mineralogy plotted in a QAPF triangle may be applied qualitatively, based on phenocryst mineralogy when ground mass mineralogy can not be determined optically, or based on CIPW norm. Although TAS categories are defined based on chemical analyses, the correspondence with the QAPF defined categories is generally close enough that QAPF categories are commonly used interchangeably with TAS categories. It is important to note the basis for assignment of fine-grained igneous rocks to a specifice lithology category.

-- Rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rock
Preferred label (en) Rock
Preferred label (es) Piedra
Definition () Consolidated aggregate of one or more EarthMaterials, or a body of undifferentiated mineral matter, or of solid organic material. Includes mineral aggregates such as granite, shale, marble; glassy matter such as obsidian; and organic material such a coal. Excludes unconsolidated materials.
Source () Jackson, 1997; NADM C1 2004; Neuendorf et al 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:compound_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:aphanite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:composite_genesis_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tuffite
Notes:

-- Gypsum or anhydrite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rock_gypsum_or_anhydrite
Preferred label (en) Gypsum or anhydrite
Definition (en) Evaporite composed of at least 50 percent gypsum or anhydrite.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:evaporite
Notes:

-- Rock salt --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rock_salt
Preferred label (en) Rock salt
Definition (en) Evaporite composed of at least 50 percent halite.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:evaporite
Notes:

-- Sand --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sand
Preferred label (en) Sand
Definition (en) Clastic sediment in which less than 30 percent of particles are gravel (greater than 2 mm in diameter) and the sand to mud ratio is at least 1. More than half of the particles are of epiclastic origin.
Source () definition of sand from SLTTs 2004 sandy sediment; particle sizes defined from Krumbein phi scale (W C Krumbein & L L Sloss, Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, 2nd edition, Freeman, San Francisco, 1963; Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938, Manual of Sedimentary Petrography: New York, Appleton Century Co., Inc.)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sand_size_sediment
Notes:

-- Sand size sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sand_size_sediment
Preferred label (en) Sand size sediment
Definition (en) Sediment in which less than 30 percent of particles are gravel (greater than 2 mm in diameter) and the sand to mud ratio is at least 1. Composition or genesis of clasts not specified.
Source (en) Neuendorf et al. 2005 ; particle sizes defined from Krumbein phi scale (W C Krumbein & L L Sloss, Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, 2nd edition, Freeman, San Francisco, 1963; Krumbein and Pettijohn, 1938, Manual of Sedimentary Petrography: New York, Appleton Century Co., Inc.)
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sand
Notes:

-- Sapropel --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sapropel
Preferred label (en) Sapropel
Definition (en) Jelly like organic rich sediment composed of plant remains, usually algal. Liptinite to Inertinite ratio is greater than one (Economic Commission for Europe, Committee on Sustainable Energy- United Nations (ECE-UN), 1998, International Classification of in-Seam Coals: Energy 19, 41 pp.)
Source () Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sediment
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ooze
Notes:

-- Schist --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:schist
Preferred label (en) Schist
Definition (en) Foliated phaneritic metamorphic rock with well developed, continuous schistosity, meaning that greater than 50 percent of the rock by volume is mineral grains with a thin tabular, lamellar, or acicular prismatic crystallographic habit that are oriented in a continuous planar or linear fabric.
Source () SLTTm 2004; Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foliated_metamorphic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mica_schist
Notes:

-- Sediment --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Preferred label (en) Sediment
Definition () Unconsolidated material consisting of an aggregation of particles transported or deposited by air, water or ice, or that accumulated by other natural agents, such as chemical precipitation, and that forms in layers on the Earth's surface. Includes epiclastic deposits.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:natural_unconsolidated_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:biogenic_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:gravel_size_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:hybrid_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:iron_rich_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud_size_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phosphate_rich_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sand_size_sediment
Notes:

-- Sedimentary material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_material
Preferred label (en) Sedimentary material
Definition (en) Material formed by accumulation of solid fragmental material deposited by air, water or ice, or material that accumulated by other natural agents such as chemical precipitation from solution or secretion by organisms. Includes both sediment and sedimentary rock. Includes epiclastic deposits. All stated composition criteria are based on the mineral/ compound material (GeoSciML term)/particulate fraction of the material, irrespective of porosity or the pore-fluid. No distinctions are made based on porosity or pore fluid composition (except organic rich sediment in which liquid hydrocarbon content may be considered).
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:compound_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:chemical_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phosphate_rich_sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Notes:

-- Sedimentary rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_rock
Preferred label (en) Sedimentary rock
Definition () Rock formed by accumulation and cementation of solid fragmental material deposited by air, water or ice, or as a result of other natural agents, such as precipitation from solution, the accumulation of organic material, or from biogenic processes, including secretion by organisms. Includes epiclastic deposits.
Source () SLTTs 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rock
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:sedimentary_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:carbonate_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_conglomerate
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_mudstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_sandstone
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:hybrid_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:iron_rich_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:organic_rich_sedimentary_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phosphorite
Notes:

-- Serpentinite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:serpentinite
Preferred label (en) Serpentinite
Definition () Rock consisting of more than 75 percent serpentine-group minerals, eg. antigorite, chrysotile or lizardite; accessory chlorite, talc and magnetite may be present; derived from hydration of ferromagnesian silicate minerals such as olivine and pyroxene.
Source () Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metamorphic_rock
Notes:

-- Shale --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:shale
Preferred label (en) Shale
Definition (en) Laminated mudstone that will part or break along thin, closely spaced layers parallel to stratification.
Source () NADM SLTT sedimentary, 2004
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_mudstone
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_mudstone
Notes:
Comment (en) Note definition does not specify carbonate vs. siliclastic nature of mud.

-- Silicate mud --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:silicate_mud
Preferred label (en) Silicate mud
Definition (en) Mud size sediment that consists of less than 50 percent carbonate minerals.
Source (en) This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud_size_sediment
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:siliceous_ooze
Notes:

-- Silicate mudstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:silicate_mudstone
Preferred label (en) Silicate mudstone
Definition (en) Mudstone that contains less than 10 percent carbonate minerals.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:generic_mudstone
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_mudstone
Notes:
Comment (en) Operational distinction of this category will typically be based on whether or not the rock fizzes when hydrochloric acid is applied--the rock is silicate mudstone if it does not fizz. The quantitative '10 percent' criteria is fuzzy.

-- Siliceous ooze --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:siliceous_ooze
Preferred label (en) Siliceous ooze
Definition (en) ooze that consists of more than 50 percent siliceous skeletal remains
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:non_clastic_siliceous_sediment
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ooze
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:silicate_mud
Notes:

-- Silt --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:silt
Preferred label (en) Silt
Alternative label (en) loess
Definition (en) Mud that consists of greater than 50 percent silt-size grains.
Source () based on SLTTs 2004; Neuendorf et al. 2005; particle size from Wentworth grade scale
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:mud
Notes:

-- Siltstone --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:siltstone
Preferred label (en) Siltstone
Alternative label (en) Silt bearing mudstone
Definition (en) Mudstone that contains detectable silt. (see comments)
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_mudstone
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_mudstone
Related informal terms (en) siltstone
Notes:
Comment (en) Use of 'dectable silt' in the criteria for this category is based on the observation that in practice, distinction of claystone from 'siltstone' is typically based on a qualitative assessment of 'grittiness' (e.g. rubbing with fingers, or chewing); the property that these tests can determine is the presence or absence of silty particles in the material. Quantitative grain size analysis in the the clay/silt fraction of a lithified sediment is difficult at best, and of questionable significance because diagensis has altered the size and mineralogy of original sedimentary particles.

-- Skarn --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:skarn
Preferred label (en) Skarn
Alternative label (en) Exoskarn
Alternative label (en) Tactite
Definition (en) Metasomatic rock consisting mainly of Ca-, Mg-, Fe-, or Mn-silicate minerals, which are free from or poor in water. Typically formed at the contact between a silicate rock or magma and a carbonate rock.
Source (en) Fettes and Desmons, 2007, p195
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metasomatic_rock
Notes:

-- Slate --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:slate
Preferred label (en) Slate
Definition () Compact, fine grained rock with an average grain size less than 0.032 millimeter and a well developed schistosity (slaty cleavage), and hence can be split into slabs or thin plates.
Source () NADM metamorphic rock vocabulary SLTTm1.0; Neuendorf et al. 2005
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foliated_metamorphic_rock
Notes:

-- Spilite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:spilite
Preferred label (en) Spilite
Definition (en) Altered basic to intermediate composition fine-grained igneous rock in which the feldspar is partially or completely composed of of albite, typically accompanied by chlorite, calcite, quartz, epidote, prehnite, and low-tempaerature hydrous crystallization products. Preservation of eruptive volcanic features is typical.
Source (en) Fettes and Desmon, 2007; Best, M.G., 1982, Igneous and metamorphic petrology: New York, W.H. Freeman and Company, p. 398; Neuendorf et al. 2005, p. 619.
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:metasomatic_rock
Related informal terms (en) meta-andesite
Related informal terms (en) metabasalt
Notes:

-- Syenite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenite
Preferred label (en) Syenite
Definition (en) Syenitic rock that contains between 0 and 5 percent quartz and no feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction. Defined modally in QAPF Field 7.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenitic_rock
Notes:

-- Syenitic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenitic_rock
Preferred label (en) Syenitic rock
Definition (en) Syenitoid with a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.1 and 0.35. Includes rocks in QAPF fields 7, 7*, and 7'.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenitoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_syenite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_syenite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenite
Notes:

-- Syenitoid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenitoid
Preferred label (en) Syenitoid
Definition (en) Phaneritic crystalline igneous rock with M less than 90, consisting mainly of alkali feldspar and plagioclase; minor quartz or nepheline may be present, along with pyroxene, amphibole or biotite. Ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is less than 0.65, quartz forms less than 20 percent of QAPF fraction, and feldspathoid minerals form less than 10 percent of QAPF fraction. Includes rocks classified in QAPF fields 6, 7 and 8 and their subdivisions.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phaneritic_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_syenitic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:monzonitic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenitic_rock
Notes:

-- Syenogranite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:syenogranite
Preferred label (en) Syenogranite
Definition (en) Granite that has a plagiolcase to total feldspar ratio between 0.10 and 0.35. QAPF field 3a.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granite
Notes:

-- Tephra --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephra
Preferred label (en) Tephra
Definition () Unconsolidated pyroclastic material in which greater than 75 percent of the fragments are deposited as a direct result of volcanic processes and the deposit has not been reworked by epiclastic processes. Includes ash, lapilli tephra, bomb tephra, block tephra and unconsolidated agglomerate.
Source () Hallsworth & Knox 1999; LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:natural_unconsolidated_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroclastic_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ash_and_lapilli
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ash_breccia_bomb_or_block_tephra
Notes:

-- Tephrite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephrite
Preferred label (en) Tephrite
Definition (en) Tephritoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.9, and contains less than 10 percent normative (CIPW) olivine.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephritoid
Notes:

-- Tephritic foidite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephritic_foidite
Preferred label (en) Tephritic foidite
Definition (en) Foiditoid that contains less than 90 percent feldspathoid minerals in the QAPF fraction, and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio that is greater than 0.5, with less than 10 percent normative olivine
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foiditoid
Notes:

-- Tephritic phonolite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephritic_phonolite
Preferred label (en) Tephritic phonolite
Definition (en) Phonolitoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.1 and 0.5. Broadly corresponds to TAS tephriphonolite of TAS field U3.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolitoid
Related informal terms (en) tephriphonolite
Notes:

-- Tephritoid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephritoid
Preferred label (en) Tephritoid
Alternative label (en) Tephritic rock
Definition (en) Fine grained igneous rock than contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, between 10 and 60 percent feldspathoid mineral in the QAPF fraction and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio greater than 0.5. Includes rocks classified in QAPF field 13 and 14 or chemically in TAS field U1 as basanite or tephrite.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fine_grained_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basanite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolitic_basanite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:phonolitic_tephrite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tephrite
Notes:

-- Tholeiitic basalt --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tholeiitic_basalt
Preferred label (en) Tholeiitic basalt
Definition (en) Tholeiitic basalt is defined here to contain 2 pyroxene phases and interstitial quartz or tridymite or cristobalite in the groundmass. Pyroxene (augite and orthopyroxene or pigeonite) and calcium-rich plagioclase are common phenocryst minerals. Olivine may also be a phenocryst, and when present, may have rims of pigeonite. Only in tholeiitic basalt is olivine in reaction relationship with melt. Interstitial siliceous residue may be present, and is often glassy. Tholeiitic basalt is relatively poor in sodium. This category includes most basalts of the ocean floor, most large oceanic islands, and continental flood basalts such as the Columbia River Plateau.
Source (en) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basalt; Carmichael, I.S. Turner, F.J., Verhoogen, John, 1974, Igneous petrology: New York, McGraw HIll Book Co., p.42-43.
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:basalt
Notes:
Comment (en) definition of tholeiite and alkali basalt here are more proscriptive than those found in most reference authorities. This is to actually provide some descriptive criteria to allow assignment of rocks on a hand sample basis to the tholeiite or alkali basalt categories if detailed petrographic or chemical data are available.

-- Tonalite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tonalite
Preferred label (en) Tonalite
Definition () Granitoid consisting of quartz and intermediate plagioclase, usually with biotite and amphibole. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF field 5; ratio of plagioclase to total feldspar is greater than 0.9.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:granitoid
Related informal terms (en) plagiogranite
Related informal terms (en) trondhjemite
Notes:

-- Trachyte --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachyte
Preferred label (en) Trachyte
Definition (en) Trachytoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.1 and 0.35, between 0 and 5 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction, and no feldspathoid minerals. QAPF field 7.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachytic_rock
Notes:

-- Trachytic rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachytic_rock
Preferred label (en) Trachytic rock
Definition (en) Trachytoid that has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio between 0.1 and 0.35. QAPF fields 7, 7', and 7*.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachytoid
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:foid_bearing_trachyte
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:quartz_trachyte
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachyte
Notes:
Comment (en) LeMaitre et al. (2002) used 'trachyte' to refer to QAPF fields 7, 7', and 7* in the text (p. 30) as well as to the more restrictive category (QAPF field 7 only). The term Trachytic rock is introduced here to label this more general category of trachyte.

-- Trachytoid --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachytoid
Preferred label (en) Trachytoid
Definition (en) Fine grained igneous rock than contains less than 90 percent mafic minerals, less than 10 percent feldspathoid mineral and less than 20 percent quartz in the QAPF fraction and has a plagioclase to total feldspar ratio less than 0.65. Mafic minerals typically include amphibole or mica; typically porphyritic. Includes rocks defined modally in QAPF fields 6, 7 and 8 (with subdivisions) or chemically in TAS Field T as trachyte or latite.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fine_grained_igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:alkali_feldspar_trachytic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:latitic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:trachytic_rock
Related informal terms (en) basaltic-trachyandesite
Related informal terms (en) benmoreite
Related informal terms (en) hawaiite
Related informal terms (en) mugearite
Related informal terms (en) potassic-trachybasalt
Related informal terms (en) shoshonite
Related informal terms (en) trachyandesite
Related informal terms (en) trachybasalt
Related informal terms (en) trachydacite
Related informal terms (en) trachyte(TAS)
Notes:

-- Travertine --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:travertine
Preferred label (en) Travertine
Definition (en) Biotically or abiotically precipitated calcium carbonate, from spring-fed, heated, or ambient-temperature water. May be white and spongy, various shades of orange, tan or gray, and ranges to dense, banded or laminated rock. Macrophytes, bryophytes, algae, cyanobacteria and other organisms often colonize the surface of travertine and may be preserved, to produce the porous varieties.
Source () Neuendorf et al. 2005; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travertine; Chafetz, H.S., and Folk, R.L., 1984, Travertine: Depositional morphology an dthe bacterially constructed constituents: J. Sed. Petrology, v. 126, p.57-74.
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:chemical_sedimentary_material
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:limestone
Related informal terms (en) calcareous sinter
Related informal terms (en) onyx marble
Related informal terms (en) tufa
Notes:

-- Tuff-breccia, agglomerate, or pyroclastic breccia --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tuff_breccia_agglomerate_or_pyroclastic_breccia
Preferred label (en) Tuff-breccia, agglomerate, or pyroclastic breccia
Definition () Pyroclastic rock in which greater than 25 percent of particles are greater than 64 mm in largest dimension. Includes agglomerate, pyroclastic breccia of Gillespie and Styles (1999)
Source () Schmid 1981; LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroclastic_rock
Notes:

-- Tuffite --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:tuffite
Preferred label (de) Tuffit
Preferred label (en) Tuffite
Definition (en) Rock consists of more than 50 percent particles of indeterminate pyroclastic or epiclastic origin and less than 75 percent particles of clearly pyroclastic origin. Commonly the rock is laminated or exhibits size grading. (based on LeMaitre et al. 2002; Murawski and Meyer 1998).
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002; Murawski and Meyer 1998
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:rock
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sedimentary_rock
Related urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:fragmental_igneous_rock
Related informal terms (en) Volcaniclastic sedimentary rock
Notes:
Comment (en) 50 percent cutoff with epiclastic rock is in contrast with LeMaitre et al., but is used for consistentency with other sedimentary rock categories following the pattern that the rock name reflects the predominant constituent.
Comment (en) In practice, it is likely that any rock for which there is suspicion that it may consist of redeposited pyroclastic material, usually based on sedimentary structures, irrespective of the presence or percentage of clearly epiclastic particles, would be called a tuffite.

-- Ultrabasic igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ultrabasic_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Ultrabasic igneous rock
Definition () Igneous rock with less than 45 percent SiO2.
Source () after LeMaitre et al. 2002
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Notes:

-- Ultramafic igneous rock --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:ultramafic_igneous_rock
Preferred label (en) Ultramafic igneous rock
Definition (en) Igneous rock that consists of greater than 90 percent mafic minerals.
Source () LeMaitre et al. 2002; Gillespie and Styles 1999
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:igneous_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:hornblendite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:komatiitic_rock
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:peridotite
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:pyroxenite
Related informal terms (en) Alkremite
Notes:

-- Unconsolidated material --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:unconsolidated_material
Preferred label (en) Unconsolidated material
Definition () CompoundMaterial composed of an aggregation of particles that do not adhere to each other strongly enough that the aggregate can be considered a solid in its own right.
Source () This vocabulary
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:compound_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:anthropogenic_unconsolidated_material
Narrower urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:natural_unconsolidated_material
Notes:

-- Wacke --

URI urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:wacke
Preferred label (en) Wacke
Definition (en) Clastic sandstone with more than 10 percent matrix of indeterminate detrital or diagenetic nature. Matrix is mud size silicate minerals (clay, feldspar, quartz, rock fragments, and alteration products).
Source (en) Pettijohn, Potter, Siever, 1972, Sand and Sandstone: New York, Springer Verlag, 681 p.
Relationships:
Broader urn:cgi:classifier:CGI:SimpleLithology:201001:clastic_sandstone
Related informal terms (en) graywacke
Notes:
Comment (en) Distinction from mudstone is based on inference that less that 50 percent of the mud size fraction (matrix) is original mud size detrital particles. May also grade into diamictite or conglomerate based on size distribution of discernible particles. If more than 50 percent of rock is detrital particles of intrabasinal orgin and carbonate composition, categorize as carbonate wackestone.
Comment (en) See Dickinson (1970) for discussion of interpretation of undiscernible matrix in diagenetically altered lithic clastic rocks. Dickinson, W.R., 1970, Interpreting detrital modes of graywacke and arkose: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 40, p. 695-707.
Comment (en) Suggested boundaries between wacke and arenite range from 5 to 15 percent matrix
Comment (en) Term is typically applied to diagenetically altered volcanic-lithic clastic rocks in which the definition of the original clasts has been obscured.