Also see EarthResourceML Discussion

EarthResourceML v1.1

EarthResourceML v2.0 - new


Earth Resource information model

This is the TWiki discussion page for the development of the Earth Resource exchange language (EarthResourceML - previously referred to as MineralOccurrences).

All documentation on the model can be found at:

  • The 'doc' folder provides a dump of the UML text in HTML format.
  • The 'xmi' folder provides the xmi documents that can be used to generate the UML of the model in Enterprise Architect
  • The 'xsd' folder contains the earthResource, mine and mineralOccurrence schema. -- BruceSimons - 13 Oct 2009


Prior to the design phase a number of scenarios were identified that the EarthResourceML information model should meet.

-- BruceSimons - 2010-09-10

Example EarthResourceML Web Feature Services

GGIC Mineral Occurrence model - 2004

Go to Mineral Occurrence Model 2004 to see the preliminary modelling work done in 2004. This includes some basic vocabulary work which will be further developed in 2007.

GGIC Mineral Occurrence Model - 2006-7

The GGIC Mineral Occurence working group met in Melbourne 3-4 April 2007 to sign-off the model created in 2004 and reviewed in 2006 (see below). Subsequent changes suggested by the working group have been incorporated in the above UML.

The GGIC Mineral Occurence working group met in Canberra on November 2006 to discuss further development of the model created in 2004 (see below). A first draft high level logical model was proposed as the basis for further work. (deleted - see previous TWiki versions)

GGIC Mineral Occurrence Model - August 2007

-- BruceSimons - 31 Jul 2007 (Deleted 15 July 2009)

Issues and change requests

Please review this paper by Peter Lewis and add your comments here.

-- AdeleSeymon - 28 Mar 2007

GGIC Mineral Occurrence Model - 2008

Proposed changes to version 1.0.0 of the model based on establishing Web Feature Services at GeoScience Victoria:

MineralOccurrence 1.0.0 changes to 1.0.1

Cleaning up Names:

  • Changed 'RawMaterial' to 'MinedMaterial'
  • Changed role of 'MinedMaterial' from 'composition' to 'rawMaterial'
  • Changed 'MineNamePreference' to 'MineName'

Cardinality issues:

  • Cardinality of 'MiningActivity' to 'MinedMaterial' changed from 0..* to 1..1 (Each MinedMaterial may only be associated with one MiningActivity)
  • Changed cardinality on 'relatedMine' association to allow multiple 'relatedMines' for each 'Mine'

Model Restructure:

  • Changed 'Product' from "FeatureType" to "DataType"
  • Changed 'relatedMine' aggregation to a directed association (Mines need not aggregate to form other mines, they may just be associated in some way or another)
  • Created a new 'MiningFeature' as abstract parent feature for Mine and MiningActivity to allow specifying occurrences.
  • Created a 'MiningFeatureOccurrence' to allow specifying the 'location' of the 'MiningFeature'. gml:location is deprecated and so need some way to link to GM_Object. Therefore used GeoSciML pattern.
  • Created 'MiningFeatureOccurrence:observationMethod' and 'MiningFeatureOccurrence:positionAccuracy' attributes as per the GeoSciML pattern. These may eventually be replaced with ISO19115 equivalents
  • Added association between 'MiningFeatureOccurrence' and GM_Object with role 'location'
A pdf of the proposed model is attached:

-- BruceSimons - 12 Nov 2008

GGIC Earth Resource Model v 1.1 - 2008-09

The model name has now been changed to EarthResourceML to better reflect the top class in the model (EarthResource) and removes the confusion for those who have trouble considering commodities such as 'gravel' as a Mineral Occurrence, and those who thought it referred only to 'minerals'.

Documentation, UML model and schema are located at ( and domain names have also been reserved).

The difficult 1.0.1 version numbering has also been removed and is now officially EarthResourceML version 1.1.

All documentation on the model can be found at:

  • The 'doc' folder provides a dump of the UML text in HTML format.
  • The 'xmi' folder provides the xmi documents that can be used to generate the UML of the model in EnterpriseArchitect
  • The 'xsd' folder contains the earthResource, mine and mineralOccurrence schema.
Instructions on how to load the EarthResourceML UML model and HollowWorld and GeoSciML dependencies into the UML modeling tool Enterprise Architect, are provided at:

-- BruceSimons - 2009-07-15

Post Extraction Processing

The EarthResourceML model needs to have a processingType:ProcessingActivityTypeCode added to describe the post-mining processing activities such as 'heap leaching', 'gravity concentration', 'froth flotation', 'magnetic separation', 'smelting'.

-- BruceSimons - 2009-12-17

Mineral System

Changed MineralSystem stereotype from <<DataType>> to <<FeatureType>>. This allows further addition to the MineralSystem class to properly model mineral systems and eventually establishing a MineralSystem WFS.

Changed geneticDescription association source from 'composite' aggregation to 'none'. MineralSystem features exist independent of the EarthResources they describe. The association is bi-directional to accommodate describing the resources that resulted from the mineral system. Consequently the association has had 'resultantResource' name added to it.


Changed stereotype from <<DataType>> to <<Type>> and association from composite aggregation to none to allow the MineralDepositModel instances to exist independent of the EarthResources they classify.


Delete commodityGroup as it is better handled by establishing a commodityName vocabulary service that has a hierarchy that includes the commodity group information.

-- BruceSimons - 2009-12-23


Add processingType to allow the description of post-mining processing activities such as 'heap leaching', 'gravity concentration', 'froth flotation', 'magnetic separation', 'smelting'. Data type is ProcessingActivityTypeCode with current suggestions of "froth flotation", "gravity concentration", "heap leaching", "magnetic separation", "smelting". These should be checked by the GGIC vocabulary working group.


CGI_Value, CGI_TermValue, CGI_Numeric, CGI_TermRange and CGI_NumericRange are all deprecated in GeoSciML v3.0. Replace all CGI data types with CGI_Term or CGI_Measure

-- BruceSimons - 2010-02-25


Add "unspecified" to the ImportanceCode CodeList (currently has "major", "minor") -- BruceSimons - 2010-02-25

Resource:includesReserves Cardinality

Change cardinality on Reserves:includesReserves:Boolean from [0..1] to [1..1]

-- BruceSimons - 2010-02-25

EarthResourceML Task Group 2010

The Australian CGGC requested the IUGS-CGI takeover governance of EarthResourceML as part of the GeoSciML governance. This was agreed to by CGI Council on 24 August 2010 and the IWG instructed to establish an EarthResourceML Task Group to maintain and progress EarthResourceML.

Group Members

Rome Meeting Actions (RomeF2F2010)

EarthResourceML v1.1 has been submitted to INSPIRE as a candidate for Mineral Resource data. The INSPIRE drafting team a currently considering this proposal.

* Agreed work plan for the next year Also see Rome F2F Meeting EarthResourceML Meeting Notes

Earth Resources Portrayal Classes

Data is best represented on maps using Web Mapping Services (WMS) rather than Web Feature Services (WFS). However, WMS are designed to handle simple 'flat' data (WFS simple feature level 0), rather than 'complex' (WFS simple feature level 1) data. Many off-the-shelf software packages can also only handle WFS SF-level 0 data. It is therefore desirable to provide a simple view of the EarthResourceML data.

However, EarthResourceML v1.1 is a GML 3.1, Simple Feature Level 1 schema, and cannot be modified by simply using a profile to make it SF-0.

The following options are possible:

  1. An Earth Resource scheme that imports the ERML and GSML schema and sub-types the gsml:MappedFeature and er:MiningFeatureOccurrence features with 'portrayal' feature types that have level 0 compliant properties (data types can only be xs:string, xs:integer etc ...). Mandatory properties inherited from the ERML/GSML features are appropriately nilled. Obviously the values for these properties will be the same as their 'complex', level 1, equivalents in the ERML-proper responses and as a result the property names should reflect that. (Every property can have 0..1 cardinality, the issue is you are effectively aiming for a denormalised GIS layer - they are you target application here. n..* is difficult to deal with in GIS.)

  1. Come up with an entirely new, and independent schema. Either GML 3.n, Simple Features Level 0 compliant, or GML 2.n based. Model it as a GIS layer. If you want, give features and properties names that, in part, are their ER/GSML equivalent (eg ascp:SF_MineralOccurrence, ascp = urn:cgi:xmlns:AuScope:EarthResource:Simple:1.0). It is basically what GSV had to do for our WMS and GIS layers.

  1. Create an "EarthResourcePortrayal" feature (Description = Abstract class to contain packages that specify a simple view of EarthResourceML features for use in Web Mapping Service GetFeatureRequest responses or as GML 3.1 Simple Feature level 0 profiles) in EarthResourceML 1.1 (as EarthResourceML 1.2).
These features would contain basic map (location) data, an optional ByReference only link to appropriate EarthResourceML features, and a list of optional attributes with SF level 0 datatypes. Attached is a proposed UML of this option.

-- BruceSimons - 2010-05-31

Proposed changes to EarthResourceML for v2.0

INSPIRE Annex III Mineral Resources - proposed changes to v2.0

New feature classes and data types are proposed to INSPIRE Data specification version 1.0 - see Mineral Occurence and Mine pictures - new feature and data types and code lists are marked as yellow!

  • Mineral Occurence -overview UML diagram as at November 2010 (Inspire Data Model - Annex III - Mineral Resources):

  • Mine -overview UML diagram as at November 2010 (Inspire Data Model - Annex III - Mineral Resources)

-- JouniVuollo - 09 Nov 2010 and DanielCassard

EarthResourceMaterial and MinedMaterial

The patterns used in EarthResourceML v1.0 are different to those used in GeoSciML v2.0 and 3.0. The current pattern allows a mineral to be delivered directly via EarthMaterial or to be wrapped in a CompoundMaterial. It would be preferable to only allow one method - the GeoSciML method. This will require replacing material:EarthMaterial with material:CompoundMaterial on both the EarthResourceMaterial and MinedMaterial classes.

-- BruceSimons - 19 Nov 2010

Edinburgh Meeting Actions (EdinburghF2F2011)

EarthResourceML v2.0 has been accepted to INSPIRE as a candidate for Mineral Resource data

* Agreed work plan for the next year (coming soon)

Also see Edinburgh F2F EarthResourceML Meeting Notes


Go here to find presentations on EarthResourceML - EarthResourceMLPresentations

Wellington Meeting Actions (WellingtonF2F2012)


- ACTION: INSPIRE codelists need to be published to CGI subversion repository with a separate spreadsheet for each vocabulary. Spreadsheets need to be formatted in standard way to be able to run XLS -> RDF script - Jouni and Steve to collaborate to do that-

Now you can find 19/23 code lists – see address below and missing are as strikethrough!

CODE LISTS – comments?

All the code lists (19) have already circulated to all ERML working members and we got only few comments. Now I hope that we could share our vocabulary work – now I have already split our voc’s to separate spreadsheets and you can find all – address above! Add your comments/corrections/etc. to the list below!

Code list_Name Organisation hosting Your(Name) Comments here
1_ImportanceValue IUGS/CGI  
2_CommodityCodeValue IUGS/CGI  
3_EarthResourceExpressionValue IUGS/CGI  
4_EarthResourceFormValue IUGS/CGI  
5_EarthResourceShapeValue IUGS/CGI  
6_EarthResourceMaterialRoleValue IUGS/CGI  
7_ExplorationActivityTypeValue IUGS/CGI  
8_ExplorationResultValue IUGS/CGI  
9_MineStatusValue IUGS/CGI  
10_RawMaterialRoleValue IUGS/CGI  
11_MineralOccurrenceTypeValue IUGS/CGI  
12_MineralDepositTypeGroupValue IUGS/CGI  
13_MiningActivityTypeValue IUGS/CGI  
14_WasteStorageTypeValue IUGS/CGI  
15_ProcessingActivityTypeValue IUGS/CGI  
16_MiningWasteTypeValue Eionet  
17_EnvironmentalImpactValue IUGS/CGI  
18_EndusePotentialValue IUGS/CGI  
20_ReserveCategoryValue IUGS/CGI  
21_ResourceCategoryValue IUGS/CGI  
22_ClassificationMethodUsedValue IUGS/CGI  
23_MineralNameValue IMA  


Mineral name code list will be under GeoSciML vocs? Steve – your opinion about this? If mineral names code list will be under GeoSciML voc’s, it means that we have left three – Commodity – MineralDepositType and MineralDeposit Group.

One note from meeting: Simon Cox has prepared Australian (AuScope?) commodity vocabulary in xmml/ontologies/trunk. Need to compare it to the INSPIRE vocabulary to check that everything is covered. Also need to add HTTP-URI identifiers

There are so/too many lists to “Mineral DepositType -Group” –we did a proposal inside INSPIRE DS work but!! See links /

“The “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium by Dill H. - Earth-Science Reviews Volume 100, Issues 1–4, June 2010, Pages 1–420 – if somebody is interested – I have pdl-file from this “Chessboard”!

Proposals how proceed - Mineral DepositType -Group???

St. Petersburg Meeting Actions (St. Petersburg F2F2013)

Group Members - update 2013-2104

-- JouniVuollo - 06 Sep 2012

UML Model

This model contains the draft Mineral Occurrence Portrayal schema UML as described above.

Note that none of the 'finalising the model' aspects have been carried out (namespace, EarthResourcePortrayal namespace and application Schema stereotyping, sequenceNumbers, dependency diagrams, etc). This will all require cleaning up before a valid schema can be generated using the App Schema checklist (

Topic attachments
I Attachment Action Size Date Who Comment
Commodity2.docdoc Commodity2.doc manage 39.5 K 02 Mar 2004 - 17:04 GregEwers  
Deposittype1.docdoc Deposittype1.doc manage 24.5 K 02 Mar 2004 - 17:04 GregEwers  
EarthResourceML_Portrayal_1.jpgjpg EarthResourceML_Portrayal_1.jpg manage 115.7 K 26 Jul 2010 - 06:46 BruceSimons Modified EarthResourceML portrayal classes
GeoSciML_V3_Working2.eapeap GeoSciML_V3_Working2.eap manage 78098.0 K 09 Dec 2010 - 10:56 BruceSimons Enterprise Architect UML of GeoSciML version 3 working and EarthResource Portrayal
Mine.jpgjpg Mine.jpg manage 157.7 K 09 Nov 2010 - 14:51 JouniVuollo INSPIRE Draft model - Annex III - yellow are new proposal for INSPIRE - Mine
MineralOccurencesModel_v0.1.jpgjpg MineralOccurencesModel_v0.1.jpg manage 187.5 K 08 Dec 2006 - 10:04 OliverRaymond Top level Mineral Occurrence model
MineralOccurrence.EAPEAP MineralOccurrence.EAP manage 9454.0 K 08 Dec 2006 - 10:12 OliverRaymond Enterprise Architect UML model
MineralOccurrence.jpgjpg MineralOccurrence.jpg manage 254.4 K 09 Nov 2010 - 14:52 JouniVuollo INSPIRE Draft model - Annex III - yellow are new proposal for INSPIRE - Mineral Occurence
MineralOccurrence.pngpng MineralOccurrence.png manage 282.8 K 15 Jul 2009 - 10:23 BruceSimons earthResourceMl overview UML diagram as at July 2009
MineralOccurrence_August2007.gifgif MineralOccurrence_August2007.gif manage 85.3 K 31 Jul 2007 - 07:14 BruceSimons Mineral Occurrence model after instance document testing
MineralOccurrence_v1_0_1.jpgjpg MineralOccurrence_v1_0_1.jpg manage 279.1 K 12 Nov 2008 - 07:13 BruceSimons Version 1.0.1 of MineralOccurrences model (November 2008)
MineralOccurrence_v6.gifgif MineralOccurrence_v6.gif manage 69.9 K 27 Apr 2007 - 14:11 BruceSimons Improved UML for presentation to GeoSciML and GGIPAC
MineralOccurrences.gifgif MineralOccurrences.gif manage 27.6 K 06 Feb 2007 - 13:54 BruceSimons Proposed changes to align with GeoSciML2 and address commodity vs raw material
MineralOccurrences_v1_1.gifgif MineralOccurrences_v1_1.gif manage 72.9 K 11 Apr 2007 - 08:07 BruceSimons Modified UML from April 2007 meetingto specify stereotypes
MineralOccurrences_v3.gifgif MineralOccurrences_v3.gif manage 65.7 K 29 Mar 2007 - 13:55 BruceSimons Draft MineralOccurrences UML combining previous drafts and vocabulary requirements
MineralOccurrences_v4.gifgif MineralOccurrences_v4.gif manage 143.2 K 05 Apr 2007 - 07:05 BruceSimons Final version signed off in Melbourne 4 April 2007
MineralOccurrences_v5.gifgif MineralOccurrences_v5.gif manage 69.9 K 27 Apr 2007 - 14:11 BruceSimons Improved UML for presentation to GeoSciML and GGIPAC
Mineral_Systems_and_deposit_types_28Mar07.docdoc Mineral_Systems_and_deposit_types_28Mar07.doc manage 32.5 K 28 Mar 2007 - 10:45 AdeleSeymon A paper covering deposit types and models by Peter Lewis
Scenarios_final_draft.docdoc Scenarios_final_draft.doc manage 102.0 K 10 Sep 2010 - 12:30 BruceSimons Scenarios prepared for information kodelling targets
mineralOccurence.pngpng mineralOccurence.png manage 4.8 K 02 Mar 2004 - 17:04 SimonCox Structure of a MineralOccurence feature
Topic revision: r10 - 11 Oct 2013, JouniVuollo

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